|SECOND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF PENNSYLVANIA - REPORT OF PROGRESS
P. DESCRIPTION OF THE COAL FLORA OF PENNSYLVANIA
AND OF THE
CARBONIFEROUS FORMATION THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES
BY LEO LESQUEREUX; ©1879
|Tables of Contents:
|All Four Volumes:
Scans and Webpage
©George Langford III, 2011
|CLATHRARIAE||Sigillaria dentata||Phytolithus notatus||SIGILLARIA ELLIPTICA|
|SIGILLARIA BRARDII||Favularia tessellata||SIGILLARIA CUSPIDATA||SIGILLARIA OVALIS|
|SIGILLARIA MENARDI||Favularia elegans||SIGILLARIA MASSILIENSIS||SIGILLARIA CORTEI|
|SIGILLARIA SERLII||Favularia variolata||SIGILLARIA ATTENUATA||Sigillaria dubia|
|RHYTIDOLEPIS||Aspidiaria variolata||Sigillaria Lescurii||S. OBOVATA|
|SIGILLARIA DOURNAISII||Palmacites variolatus||SIGILLARIA WILLIAMSII||SIGILLARIA ACUMINATA|
|SIGILLARIA TESSELLATA||SIGILLARIA ICHTHYOLEPIS||SIGILLARIA LEPTODERMA||SIGILLARIA RUGOSA|
|Phytolithus tessellatus||Sigillaria tessellata||SIGILLARIA PULCHRA||SIGILLARIA MARGINATA|
|Sigillaria microstigma||Sigillaria Biercei||SIGILLARIA POLITA||SIGILLARIA LACOEI|
|Sigillaria elegans||SIGILLARIA HEXAGONA||SIGILLARIA YARDLEI||Sigillaria discoidea|
|Sigillaria Knorrii||Sigillaria tessellata||SIGILLARIA ORBICULARIS||SIGILLARIA LAEVIGATA|
|Sigillaria alveolaris||SIGILLARIA MAMILLARIS||SIGILLARIA VOLZII||SIGILLARIA RENIFORMIS|
|Lepidodendron alveolare||SIGILLARIA LESCURII||Sigillaria Sillimanni||Sigillaria monostachya|
|Sigillaria minima||Sigillaria attenuata||SIGILLARIA PITTSTONIANA||Sigillaria alternans|
|Sigillaria ornata||SIGILLARIA NOTATA||SIGILLARIA SILLIMANNI|
§ 2. CLATHRARIAE.Scars contiguous by prominent borders forming a kind of lattice upon the cortex.
SIGILLARIA BRARDII, Brgt., Plate LXXIII, Figs. 8-16.Scars transversely rhomboidal-oval, enlarged and acuminate on the sides; lower and upper borders round; mamillae of the same form, the upper border emarginate; vascular scars three, the lateral semi-lunar, the middle punctiform or transversely linear; surface epidermis lineate lengthwise; decorticated scars transversely oval, enlarged and acuminate on the sides, or totally obsolete, with two oval vascular scars; cicatrices of the rhizome small, circular, mammillate, with a large central vascular point; surface rugose by deep wrinkles diverging star-like from the scars; leaves narrow, broadly nerved, lineate.
Brgt., Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 430, Pl. CLVIII, f. 4.
Gold., Fl. Sarraep., p. 25, Pl. VII, f.7-10.
Germ., Verst., p. 29, Pl. XI, f. 1, 2.
Weiss, foss. fl., p. 161, Pl. XVI, f. 1; XVII, f. 7-9.
Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 872; Geol. Rept. of Ill., p. 451.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 102.
Also described by Heer and Grand'Eury, without figures.
Though very common in the middle coal measures, this species is rarely found in specimens affording points of comparison for its different characters which are of course variable, according to the state of preservation of the fragments. I have had opportunity of studying various forms, from a number of specimens obtained at the same locality where no other Sigillaria was discovered. As the modifications of the characters may be followed in comparing the divers fragments, I am satisfied that f. 8-10, of Plate LXXIII, represents the same species. As seen Atlas, f. 8 and 9, the leaf scars are variable in size; others not figured are still larger. The mamillae, which are generally flat, are from four to seven millimeters broad, and the disks surrounding them proportionally large. Atlas Fig. 10 shows that sometimes the disks are not contiguous, the lower part being erased and the space vertically rugose. Atlas Fig. 12 is taken from the surface covered by a coaly epidermis, regularly vertically lineate, bearing, obscurely marked, the outlines of the disks underneath. Atlas F. 11 and 13 represent two states of decortication. In the first, Atlas f. 11, the disks are still distinct; in Atlas f. 13, they are totally erased, and the space between the vascular oval scars is. vertically rugose. Atlas f. 14 is a fragment of the Stigmaria of this species, distinct by its small tubercles, and the deep wrinkles of the surface disposed star-like around the mamillae. Atlas f. 15-16a represent parts of the leaves, enlarged. They are two millimeters broad, canaliculate by a thick medial flat nerve and very thinly lineate lengthwise, as is also the medial nerve incorrectly left smooth upon Atlas f. 10. Whole fragments of shale are covered with them. The base of the leaves, Atlas f. 15, is narrowed to the point of attachment and enlarged above. This figure is made from separate small pieces of shale which may represent folded leaves. The top of the fragment is lineate, as seen on the figure.
Habitat—The specimens described above are in the collection of Prof. J. P. Lesley, obtained in Washington county, by Prof. I. C. White. The species, not rare in the upper strata of the anthracite fields of Pennsylvania, is found also at Colchester and Duquoin, Ill., at Pomeroy and Coshocton, Ohio. It is rare in the lower coal strata, and has not been seen in the sub-conglomerate measures. Mr. Deudler, of Pittston, has a splendid specimen of this species, from Brown's colliery near the town.
SIGILLARIA MENARDI, Brgt.Stems mammillate; areoles small, transversely rhomboidal-oval; scars nearly as large as the mamilla, with borders parallel, the upper emarginate; vascular scars a single central point.
Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 450, Pl. CLVIII, f. 5, 6.
Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 871.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 103.
Except that the areoles and scars are less enlarged laterally, and the vascular scars simple and punctiform, there is no marked difference between this species and the former. Schimper doubts that they may be different. Indeed the casual erasure of the lateral vascular scars is often remarked even upon good specimens of Sigillaria Brardii, and in that case it is scarcely possible to decide to which of the two species the specimens are referable. The American specimens identified by Brongniart as Sigillaria Menardi, were sent to him by Cist, from Wilkes-barre, where various forms of Sigillaria Brardii are commonly found. I have described this species (Geol. of Penn'a, l.c.,) from specimens bearing leaves, whose vascular scars are not discernible. I, therefore, believe that Schimper' s supposition is right.
On the explanation of the plates, the name, Sigillaria Menardi, is, by error, given to f. 7, Plate LXXIII, which represents Sigillaria ichthyolepis, St.
Habitat—The specimen mentioned above (Si. 15), Mus. Comp. Zool. Cambridge, is from Muddy Creek; another (Si. 9b) is from Wilkes-Barre, and a third (Si. 84) from Pomroy, 0.
SIGILLARIA SERLII, Brgt.Trunks marked with small elevated rhomboidal bolsters disposed in quincunxial order, contiguous; scars central, transversely rhomboidal; vascular scars three points, horizontally disposed in the middle of the scars.
Hist. d. veg., foss., p. 433, Pl. CLVIII, f. 9.
Gold., Flor. Sarraep., II, p. 25, Pl. VII, f. 5, 6.
Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 872.
Brongniart considered the place of this species as uncertain. Goldenberg refers it to a Lepidophloios. Schimper makes it a variety of Sigillaria Defrancii. From positive evidence, the species merely represents a small branch of Ulodendron, majus, Ll. & Hutt. As I formerly described as Sigillaria Menardi a fragment of this Ulodendron, I was near making the same mistake in referring a small branch of the same to Sigillaria Serlii, the characters being perfectly concordant with those of Brongniart's species.
Habitat—This branch, mentioned above, is part of a splendid specimen of Uludendron majus, No. 581, of the collection of Mr. R. D. Lacoe. It comes from Butler mine, E. vein. Pittston, and represents a number of varieties in the characters of the bolsters of this species.
§ 3. RHYTIDOLEPIS
Stems more or less distinctly costate; cicatrices discoid; vascular scars three.
A. Leaf-scars approximate, nearly contiguous at the base.
SIGILLARIA DOURNAISII, Brgt.Leaf-scars upraised or mammillate, hexagonal, upper and lower angles obtuse or truncate, the lateral acute.
Hist. d. veg., foss., p. 441, Pl. CLIII, f. 5.
Gold., Fl. Sarraep., II, p. 28, Pl. VII, f. 22-24.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 82.
Heer, Ft. foss., Helv., IV, p. 41, Pl. XVI, f. 2.
American specimens differ merely from the European form by the scars smaller, scarcely five millimeters in diameter, both ways, and vertically more distant, five millimeters. The species is closely allied to the following, but really distinct. The vertical distance between the leaf-scars is longer—four to five millimeters.
Habitat—Subconglomerate coal of Alabama, Woodworth seams, Helena; communicated by Mr. T. H. Aldrich.
|SIGILLARIA TESSELLATA, Brgt.—Plate LXXII, Figs. 2-4.
Brgt., Hist. d. Veg. foss., p. 436, Pl. CLVI, f. 1; CLXII, f. 1-4.
Gold., Fl. Sarraep., II, p. 29, Pl. VII, f. 14-15.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 81, Pl. L XVIII, f. 1-3.
Heer, Fl. foss. Helv., p. 41, Pl. XVI, f. 3-4.
Phytolithus tessellatus, Steinh., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., I, p. 295, Pl. VII, f. 2.
Sigillaria microstigma, Brgt., l.c., p. 478, Pl. CXLIX, f. 2, decorticated, (fide Sehimper.)
Sigillaria elegans, Brgt., l.c., p. 438, Pl. CXLVI, f. 1.
Gold., l.c., p. 27, Pl. VI, f. 16-17.
Sigillaria Knorrii, Brgt., l.c., p. 444, Pl. CLVI, f. 2, 3; CL XII, f. 6.
Sigillaria alveolaris, Brgt., l.c., p. 448, Pl. CLXII, f. 5.
Lepidodendron alveolare, St. Fl. d. Vorw., p. 23, Pl. IX, f. 1.
Sigillaria minima and ornata, Brgt., l.c., p. 434 and 435, Pl. CLVIII, f. 2, 7, 8.
Sigillaria dentata, Newb'y, Ann. of Sci., of Clcvel., v. 1, p. 165, f. 4.
Favularia tessellata, Ll. & Hutt., Foss. fl , I, Pl. LXXIII-LXXV.
Favularia elegans, variolata; Aspidiaria variolata, St.; Palmacites variolatus, Schloth, etc.
Scars small, hexagonal or ovate, enlarged in the lower part, or broadly oval, obtuse or acute at the borders, contiguous; decorticated surface either narrowly irregularly striate, with leaf-scars marked by small round mamillae and a central vascular point, or smooth, with obovate elongated and inflated bolsters deeply emarginate at the top, with an oval depression in the center, (as seen, Atlas f. 4 a, 4 b.)
This species is so variable that the leaf scars of any specimen referable to it have rarely the same shape. Most of the forms referred to this species by Schimper's synonimy, quoted above, have hexagonal scars, truncate at both the upper and lower borders, angular at the sides. The American specimens have them mostly enlarged and rounded on the lower side and base, narrowed to the upper truncate emarginate border; of the same characters as represented in Brgt., l.c., Pl. 162, f. 2 and. 4, or in Sigillaria elegans, Gold., l.c., Pl. VI, f. 17, 17a. The lateral angles are often obscured by compression, or covered by superposition of imbricated borders. Schimper refers still to this species, Sigillaria ichthyolepis, St., Sigillaria hexagona, Brgt., and Sigillaria pachyderma, Brgt., which are described and figured here as distinct.
The form described by Prof. Newberry as Sigillaria dentata, differs by the areoles marked at the base by a small distinct tooth. The author remarks that the species resembles in many respects Sigillaria alveolaris and Sigillaria Knorrii, Brgt., and that if these are to be considered identical, Sigillaria dentata should perhaps be regarded as a variety. In Sigillaria tessellata, as in Sigillaria alveolaris, the shape of the areoles is so variable that a specific distinction founded on this character is scarcely advisable. Still I have never observed the sharp basilar acumen of the leaf-scars in any of the forms referable to Sigillaria tessellata. Sigillaria dentata may, therefore, be a good species.
Habitat—Generally found in the whole thickness of the middle coal measures, especially in the anthracite fields of Wilkes-Barre, Pittston, etc. Also at Cannelton, Penn'a. Massillon, Ohio. Rare in the west. I have found it at Murphysborough, Ill.
SIGILLARIA ICHTHYOLEPIS, St., Plate LXXIII, Fig. 7.Areoles upraised, fiat on the surface, broadly hexagonal; furrows in zigzag, deep and carinate; vascular scars three, semi-lunar, the lateral diverging.
Corda, Beitr., p. 29, Pl. IX, f. 19.
St., Fl. d. Vorw., II, Pl. XXXVIII, f. 2b.
Gold., Fl., Sarraep., II, p. 27, Pl. VII, f. 17.
Sigillaria tessellata, Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 82.
Sigillaria Biercei, Newb'y, Ann. of Sci. of Clevel., v., 1 p. 164, f. 2.
Our figure, copied from a well-preserved specimen, is exactly similar to the representations of this species by the European authors. By the deep furrows, the shape of the bolsters, even the shape and direction of the vascular scars, this form seems, indeed, far different from any of the varieties of Sigillaria tessellata.
Habitat—This species is very rare. It has been figured only by Sternberg and Corda, from the Carboniferous limestone of Radnitz, Bohemia, and in America by Prof. Newberry. The figure of the Atl. is copied from a piece of soft-grained sandstone, from Newport, Ind., sent by Mr. Gurley, of Danville, Ill. Prof. Newberry received his specimen from Mr. L. V. Bierce, of Akron.
SIGILLARIA HEXAGONA ? Brgt., Plate LXXII, Fig. 1.Leaf scars hexagonal; vascular scars three, the middle punctiform, the lateral semi-lunar.
Brgt., Prodr., p. 65: Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 439, Pl. CLV, CLVIII, f. 1.
Sigillaria tessellata, Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 81.
Brongniart species is considered by himself and most of the European authors as a variety of Sigillaria tessellata. The leaf-scars are upraised, transversely six millemeters, vertically only four. The size is, of course, variable, according to the age of the trunks; but in all the representations of this species, the same proportion is remarked in the size of the scars, always distinctly broader transversely than vertically. The American specimen, which I doubtfully refer to this species, has the six sides equal, five millimeters, and the scars are, therefore, as high as broad, nine millimeters in diameter. They are not elevated as bolsters, but flat and vertically separated by a linear scarcely undulate furrow, as in Sigillaria mamillaris, a species to which it might be referred as a variety rather than to Sigillaria tessellata.
Habitat—This specimen, like the former, is unique. It was sent for determination by Mr. Tyler McWorther, from the coal measures of Illinois.
SIGILLARIA MAMILLARIS, Brgt., Plate LXXII, Figs. 5, 6.Leaf-scars of various size and shape, pyriform or oblong-ovate, broadly obtuse at the lower border, truncate at the top, angular or rounded at the sides, separated by a straight linear furrow ; vascular scars triple, the medial punctiform, the lateral semi-lunar ; super cortical, vascular scars as in the former species; decorticated surface striate, with scars represented each, by a small round mamilla, with a central vascular point.
Brgt., Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 451, Pl. CXLIX, f. 1; CL XIII, f. 1.
Gold., Fl. Sarraep., II, p. 32, Pl. VIII, f. 6-8.
Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 88.
Veiss, Foss. fl., p. 164, Pl. XV, f. 1-4.
The size of the scars is as variable as their outlines. They are generally larger in American specimens than represented by European authors, except by Weiss, who, l.c., has figured a specimen with cicatrices much like those in the lower part of Atlas, f. 5. They vary from five to ten millimeters long, and from four to eight millimeters broad in the lower part, where they are generally enlarged.
F. 5 of Plate LXXII is very interesting on account of the deformation of the scars, as seen in the middle. This deformation is peculiar, not merely considering the shape and the displacement of the cicatrices, but from its periodical appearance. Large specimens are marked at equal distance by the same dimorphism of scars, as regularly as are the stems of Calamites by articulations. This is seen, for example, upon specimen No. 475a, of Mr. Lacoe's collection, where three distinct zones of deformed cicatrices appear at fifteen centimeters distance. This specimen, a part of a stem, is fifty centimeters long. The fluting of the surface is continuous in the whole length, and not at all deranged by the presence of these abnormal scars, though some of them are placed in the middle of the furrows, or covering them. They are oval tubercles, highly convex, slightly variable in size, narrowed and obtuse at both ends, oblique or vertical in direction. Their crest is cut by deep lines or notches, linear, slightly enlarged in the middle, smooth along the borders, rugose crosswise on the sides.
These deformed bolsters, remarked also upon specimens of Sigillaria tessellata, are considered by Schimper as points of insertion of strobiles of fructifications. The shape and convexity of these tubercles is against this supposition, as also the periodical reappearance of these organisms and their irregular directions upon the stems. They are like buds, which, stopped in their growth by unfavorable weather at the end of a season of vegetable activity, have been withered before development, and have been, later, pushed aside by other new buds, in the beginning of a new period of vegetation. This seems proved by the displacement of withered buds by the new ones developed into leaves, as seen by the cicatrices mixed with these tubercles. A phenomenon of this kind, seen upon branches of living coni- fers, indicates the annual renovation of the vegetation. The decorticated vascular scars of the deformed buds or tubercles are mere small points.
Habitat—Two specimens, with small scars, in the Museum of Comp. Zool. of Cambridge, are subconglomerate—one from the AEtna vein of Tennessee, the other procured by Prof. J. P. Lesley, in the subcarboniferous measures of Virginia. The beautiful specimens figured and described here from the cabinet of Mr. R. D. Lacoe, are from Oliphant, N. 1. vein.
|B. Leaf-scars more or less distant, angular on the sides, obtuse or acute at the base; ribs distinct.
Ribs equal and narrow, piano-convex; scars large, ovate, enlarged and angular near the base, obtuse or slightly emarginate at the upper border, more or less distant; surface of the stem rugose in the intervals; vascular scars placed in the upper part; decorticated surface striate, its scars simple, triangular, flat.
SIGILLARIA LESCURII, Schp., Plate LXXII, Figs. 7, 8.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 85.
Sigillaria attenuata, Lesqx., Cat. Pottsv. Sci. Assoc., 1858, p. 17, Pl. II, f. 1, 2., and by error in explanation of the plate.
This species is much like the former. It differs by the cicatrices abruptly enlarged towards the base and the rugose surface which separates them. The ribs are narrower, at least comparatively, less than one centimeter broad between the scars, which, by their base, fill nearly the whole space between the very narrow deep furrows, generally marked by a deep line.
Habitat—Wilkesbarre, Ashland Gap, and Trevorton, Anthracite basin of Penn'a. The specimens figured have been communicated by Mr. H. W. Poole, of Pottsville.
SIGILLARIA NOTATA, Brgt.Ribs narrow, convex, separated by a lineal narrow furrow; leaf-scars short, obtuse, and narrowed at the apex, acutely angular on the sides below the middle; vascular scars three.
Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 449, Pl. CLIII, f. 1.
Gold., Fl. Sarraep., p. 38, Pl. VIII, f. 1.
Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 87.
Phytolithus notatus, Steinh., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., I, p. 294, Pl. VII, f. 3.
The ribs of this species are a little larger than those of the former, and the leaf-scars much smaller, five millimeters vertically, four millimeters between the enlarged part below the middle, rounded or obtusely angular at the base. In the decorticated state which has not been described by European authors, the vascular scars are double oval tubercles, three millimeters long, one millimeter broad.
Habitat—The specimen which represents this species in both corticated and decorticated states, Si. 15, is in the collection of the Mus. Comp. Zool. of Cambridge, obtained from Port Carbon.
SIGILLARIA CUSPIDATA, Brgt.Bark thin; ribs piano-convex; scars longitudinally distant, small, ovate or oblong in outline, truncate at the top, gradually enlarged to below the middle, and rapidly cuneate to the acute base, which is thus triangular; vascular scars three, placed above the middle; bark rugose below the scars, punctulate above them, smooth on the borders; decorticated surface thinly striate, its vascular scars two, parallel, long, narrowly oval, accuminate at both ends.
Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 457, Pl. CLIII, f. 2.
Gold., Fl., Sarraep., p. 38, Pl. VIII, f. 2.
Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 87.
The species, as described above from an American specimen, differs from the figures by which it is represented by European authors. The tumescent leaf-scars are much smaller, eight millimeters long, five millimeters broad between the angles above the base; the vascular scars are placed lower; the ribs also are larger, sixteen to eighteen millimeters, and the scars vertically less distant only fifteen millimeters. In Brongniart's figure, the leaf-scars twelve millimeters long, are twenty-six millimeters distant. Notwithstanding the difference in the measurement, the essential characters, as described by Brongniart, are identical. The epidermis or upper cortex is as thin as a leaf of writing paper, the shape of the slightly oblique cicatrices is exactly the same; the vascular scars, though placed a little lower than described by Brongniart, are of the same type; the middle very small, the lateral long, arched; the surface is rugose below the scars, the wrinkles obliquely turned upward and parallel to the base of the scars, gradually disappearing downward, the bark above the top of the scars being merely rugulose or punctulate. We have for only point of comparison the figure given by Brongniart. It has been copied by Goldenberg, and it does not appear that any other specimen has been seen, as the subcorticated scars are not described.
Habitat—The species is very rare. The only specimen known until now from the American coal measures is in the collections of Mr. B. D. Lacoe, No. 622, from Plymouth, Penn'a, old mine F. It has been figured for the Atlas, but like those of many other species, it has been left out from want of place.
Ribs flat; furrows deeply cut
and carinate; surface striate lengthwise; leaf scars large, rhomboidal,
obtuse at the top, enlarged to the middle, triangular at the base;
vascular scars three, the lateral ones semi-lunar, the medial
The cicatrices have about the same outline as in the former species. They are, however, larger, especially broader, and comparatively shorter; twelve millimeters long, eight millimeters broad between the lateral sharply acute angles, placed a little higher, or about in the middle. The characters of the decorticated surface are unknown, as no other specimen has been found except the fragment figured. The flat ribs are twelve to fourteen millimeters broad.
Habitat—Found in the sandstone of Marseilles, Ill.
SIGILLARIA ATTENUATA, Lesqx., Plate LXXII, Fig. 9.Ribs narrow, equal, plano-convex; furrows deep; leaf-scars ovate, hexagonal, rounded at the base, narrower and truncate at the top, angular below the middle, distant; vascular scars placed in the upper part; intervals transversely rugose.
Lesqx., Cat. Potts. Sci. Assoc., 1858, p. 17, Pl. II, f. 3.
Schp., Paleonl. veget., II, p. 85.
Sigillaria Lescurii, Schp., by error in explan. of the plate.
The characters of this species are in a reduced size nearly identical to those of Sigillaria Lescurii. The ribs are only narrower, the scars much smaller, five to six millimeters long, three to four millimeters broad in the largest part below the middle, and two and an half centimeters distant. The three specimens, Atlas f. 7, 8, 9, were sent to me from the same place as probably derived from a same tree. I admit, however, the distinction made of these forms by Schimper.
Habitat—Ashland Gap, Pa., communicated by Mr. H. W. Poole.
Ribs distinct, convex,
depressed in the middle; scars very small, ovate in outline, slightly
angular or enlarged on the sides and rounded to the base, truncate or
slightly emarginate at the top; vascular scars three, the middle
punctiform, the lateral semi-lunar, opposite; decorticated; vascular
scars simple, small, round, mammillate.
The ribs a little more than one centimeter broad, separated by deep narrow furrows, are convex on the borders and there striate, flat or slightly concave in the middle, rugulose or punctulate between the scars which are at least four centimeters distant; leaf scars four to five millimeters long, slightly emarginate at the top, two millimeters broad, enlarged downwards to three millimeters, and abruptly curved or rounded to the base.
Species comparable to the former, differing by the leaf scars more distant, shorter, broader than long, not angular at the middle or curving lower to the base; by the broader ribs with rugose depressions in the middle, striate on the borders. In the decorticated state the vascular scars are simple round small mamillae, and the surface is obliquely rugulose, not striate. It is also closely related to Sigillaria Lacoei, Atlas Plate LXXII, f. 12. The leaf scars are about of the same character; the cortex is flattened or slightly convex in the middle; the difference is essentially in the width of the ribs and the distance of the scars.
Habitat—There is in the cabinet of Mr. R. D. Lacoe, No. 719, a large specimen obtained by and named from Mr. Sam'l P. Williams, an active contributor to that collection, with another specimen, No. 526, both obtained at Oliphant No. 1 vein.
SIGILLARIA LEPTODERMA, Sp. nov., Plate LXXII, Fig. 10.Ribs of medium size, plano-convex, coarsely irregularly striate; leaf scars small, narrowed and marginate at the apex, enlarged to near the basilar half round line; vascular scars nearly in the middle; cortex thin, obliquely rugose above the scars; decorticated surface distinctly lineate, with vascular scars large, double, lanceolate, obtusely pointed.
The ribs are one and an half centimeters broad, planoconvex, sometimes flattened in the middle, separated by equal parallel deep carinate furrows; the scars, nearly four centimeters distant, are five millimeters long, equally broad and angular in the widest part above the rounded basilar line; the vascular scars are small, three, the lateral ones linear and slightly curved, the middle punctiform. The upper cortex is very thin, obscurely and more or less irregularly striate, rugulose above the top of the scars, the oblique wrinkles forming a short conical latticed impression, gradually effaced upwards. The under surface is distinctly marked by continuous thin lines, and the decorticated vascular scars, comparatively large, are formed of two parallel lanceolate mamillae, five to six millimeters long, two millimeters broad at the inflated rounded base.
The species is allied to the former, but essentially distinct, by the character of the subcortical vascular scars, a character, however, extremely variable. For in some specimens the subcortical scars are oblong, obtuse at both ends, still larger than those figured, nearly like those of the small forms of Sigillaria laevigata and Sigillaria reniformis.
Habitat—Represented in numerous and large specimens in the collection of Mr. R. D. Lacoe, from Plymouth, Pa., F vein.
Trunk narrowly ribbed; ribs
prominent, slightly rugose, alternately expanded and contracted;
areoles lenticular, rounded above and below, with acute lateral angles;
vascular impressions two, nearly round, separated by a rounded
tubercle; decorticated surface longitudinally striate, bearing obscure
impressions of the leaf-scars.
The ribs, eight millimeters broad in the enlarged space, are alternately contracted to five millimeters between the areoles. These, two centimeters distant, measure six millimeters transversely, four vertically.
The author remarks that this species resembles, in the alternance of width of the ribs, Sigillaria contracta, Brgt., and Sigillaria diploderma, Corda, but differs from both by the leaf-scars and the vascular impressions. As seen from the figures, the areoles are like those of Sigillaria transversalis, Brgt., and the characters of the ribs as in Sigillaria diploderma.
Habitat—Youngstown, Ohio, Sub-conglomerate coal measures.
|C. Leaf scars obtuse at the top; borders laterally diverging in a curve, angularly bent at the arched basilar line.
Ribs nearly ftat, very smooth; furrows deep and narrow; scars discoid, rounded at the top, enlarged on the sides, joined in an obtuse angle to the slightly arched basilar line; vascular scars near the apex, the lateral ones distant, semilunar, the medial straight or arched upward.
SIGILLARIA POLITA, Lesqx., Plate LXXIII, Fig. 1.
Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 872, Plate XIV, f. 3.
This species is closely related to the following, differing merely by narrow ribs and broader discs. These are one centimeter broad near the base and five to six millimeters in vertical direction. The subcorticated surface is not seen upon the only specimen which I had for examination. Schimper does not record this species in Paleont. Veget., probably considering it as identical with the following. Its relation is with Sigillaria Saullii and Sigillaria hyppocrepis, Brgt.
Habitat—Carbondale, Clarkson's collection.
SIGILLARIA YARDLEI, Lesqx., Plate LXXIII, Fig. 2.Ribs plano-convex, smooth; leaf scars trapezoidal, obtuse at the top, half round at the enlarged base; vascular scars, near the upper border; subcortical surface distinctly striate, with leaf scars simple, oval, small, mammillate.
Lesqx., Cat. Pottsv. Sci. assoc., p. 17, Pl. II, f. 4.
Schp., Paleont, Veget., II, p. 85.
Though the ribs are broader, the scars are smaller and more distant than in the former species. Except this the characters are about the same.
Habitat—Presented by Mr. T. W. Yardley, as obtained near Pottsville. I have lately found some good specimens of the species at the Mammoth bed of Raush Gap, Pa.
SIGILLARIA ORBICULARIS, Brgt.Ribs flat; scars nearly round, very obtuse or slightly emarginate at the top, larger below the middle; borders scarcely angular in rounding to the base.
Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 465, Pl. CLII, 5.
Gold., Fl. Sarraep., p. 42, Pl. f. 20, 21.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 87.
The American specimens agree with very little difference to the descriptions and figures of the European authors. The ribs are flat, generally somewhat narrower, ten to eleven millimeters broad; the furrows straight and narrow; the leaf scars smaller than the ribs, broader than long, slightly narrowed to the obtuse top, rounded at the base. The vascular scars, three, have the general character, the medial one being a short transversal bar punctate in the middle. The decorticated surface has not been seen by the authors quoted above. It is indistinctly lineate or striate, and its vascular scars are represented by oval corrugated mamillae or oval patches of coaly matter indicating the shape of the scars as simple and nearly round.
Habitat—Seen in good specimens in Mr. R. D. Lacoe collection (No. 616, 616a, 621) from Maltby, Pa., and also from Seneca mine, F vein, Pittston.
|D. Leaf scars oval or ovate, not angular on the sides, truncate emarginate or obtuse at the top, rounded at the base.
Ribs narrow, plano-convex, equal, obliquely rugose above the scars; discs ovate; vascular scars nearly in the middle; decorticated surface thinly lineate lengthwise, its vascular scars simple, small, oval mamillae.
SIGILLARIA VOLZII, Brgt., Plate LXXII, Fig. 11.
Brgt., Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 461, Pl. CXLIV, f. 1.
Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 88.
Sigillaria Sillimanni, Gold., Fl. Sarraep., II, p. 35.
In the American specimens the ribs and scars are a little larger than figured by Brongniart and the latteral borders of the discs are not at all angular, but gradually rounded to the base. The convex ribs, one centimeter broad, separated by deep narrow parallel and equal furrows, are obscurely rugose lengthwise, and distinctly marked above the scars by oblique wrinkles diverging upward. The scars are one centimeter long, six millimeters broad in the lower part, slightly emarginate at top. The cortex is somewhat thick, about half a millimeter.
In comparing the figure to that of Sigillaria Sillimanni, Plate LXXI, f. 6, the great difference in the characters is easily remarked.
Habitat—Rare in the American coal measures. The specimen described, the only one I have seen, is No. 494, of Mr. R. D. Lacoe's collection, from Plymouth F vein.
SIGILLARIA PITTSTONIANA, Sp. nov., Plate LXXI, Fig. 4.Ribs flat, convex on the borders only, along the deep large parallel equal furrows; surface irregularly minutely rugose; scars comparatively small, oval, obtusely truncate at the top; vascular scars in the middle of the cicatrices; bark very thick; decorticated surface stitl more obscurely striate, its scars small, oval.
The ribs always flat, except along the borders, vary in diameter from eight to fifteen millimeters. In the largest forms the scars are seven millimeters long, four millimeters broad, rounded at the base, truncate at the top, sometimes narrower and obtuse at both ends. The vascular scars, of the general character, are placed in the middle of the cicatrices. In the decorticated state they are simple, oval, obtuse at both ends, scarcely one millimeter broad in the middle, and four to five millimeters long.
The species is allied to Sigillaria rugosa, Brgt., l.c., p. 476, Pl. CXLIV, f. 2.
Habitat—The collection of Mr. R. D. Lacoe, of Pittston, has numerous specimens of this species from Plymouth F. vein. The characters are persistent upon all.
SIGILLARIA SILLIMANNI, Brgt., Plate LXXI, Fig. 6.Ribs narrow, plano-convex, slightly undulate, punctate or rugulose above the scars; leaf-scars ovate, truncate at the top, enlarging towards the rounded base; vascular scars placed above the middle; decorticated surface distinctly lineate, its vascular scars double, oval, small, close to each others.
Brgt., Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 459, Pl. CXLVII f. 1.
Gold., Fl. Sarraep., II, p. 35, Pl. IX, f. 4; X, f. 12.
Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 872.
Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 88.
The ribs seven to nine millimeters broad, are distinctly convex ; the scars two to three centimeters distant, eight millimeters long, five to six broad toward the base, are ovate, truncate, or slightly emarginate at the apex, gradually enlarged downwards to the half round base. Sometimes the scars are topped by a small round mamilla, as described and figured by Goldenberg, l.c.; but it is generally indistinct and even totally erased upon most of the specimens. The cortex is either smooth or punctate, rarely rugose, and the lateral vascular scars are generally united at the base in the form of a horse-shoe, an unimportant character, for they are sometimes cut and separate upon the same specimen, as seen, Atlas f. 6. In f. 4 of Gold., l.c., the cortex is thinly lineate, as in some of our specimens. In Brgt., l.c., f. 1, it is transeversely, coarsely rugose. This character is indicated for the typical form, while the ribs with the smooth or linear surface represent var. B, found at Saarbruck, and described by Goldenberg. The subcortical vascular scars are generally double, small, oval, as seen on the left side of f. 6 of our plate; sometimes they are united in one and nearly round—this, however, very rarely.
Habitat—The first specimens of this species were sent to Brongniart by Cist, with the locality indicated as mines of Wilkesbarre. The species is common in that region, as it is represented in its varieties by numerous specimens in the cabinet of Mr. R. D. Lacoe, especially from Plymouth F. vein.
SIGILLARIA ELLIPTICA, Brgt.Ribs plano-convex, narrow, transversely rugose between the scars; cicatrices ovate, obscurely hexagonal, obtuse at the top and the base; vascular scars in the upper part of the cicatrices.
Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 447, Pl. CLII, f. 1-3, CLXIII, f. 4,
Gold., Fl. Sarraep., II, p. 39, Pl. VII, f. 19-21, VIII, f. 3.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 84.
This species is allied to Sigillaria Lescurii, as represented Atlas, Plate LXXII, f. 8, differing by the obtuse apex of the cicatrices not enlarged in the lower part. The ribs average one centimeter in width; the scars are close, three to five millimeters distant, one centimeter long, five to seven millimeters broad, and the space between them is distinctly transversely rugose. The characters of the subcortical surface are not given by the authors. From our specimens this surface is obscurely very thinly lineate, the lines not perceivable with the naked eye, and the vascular scars are oval simple mamillae, two and an half millimeters long, one millimeter broad.
Habitat—I refer to this species a large number of specimens obtained at the mines of Cuyahoga falls, Ohio (Si. 6), in the collection of the Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge. I have received one specimen from Cannelton, by Mr. I. F. Mansfield. There are also some in the cabinet of Mr. R. D. Lacoe, from Plymouth F vein.
SIGILLARIA OVALIS, Sp. nov., Plate LXXI, Figs. 7, 8.Ribs flat, equal and parallel; furrows marked by a mere line; surface smooth; cicatrices oval or ovate, a little narrower at the obtuse top than at the rounded base; vascular scars at or above the middle; decorticated surface distinctly, coarsely lineate, its scars simple, small, narrowly oval.
Differs from the former by the oval comparatively narrower areoles, by the greater distance between them and by the surface, which is smooth even between the scars. The bark is nearly one millimeter thick; the space between the cicatrices is about one centimeter, same as the length of the scars, whose width averages only five millimeters. Atlas f. 8 shows a remarkable plicature of the bark in thin layers alternately superposed upon each other.
Habitat—The specimens (No. 466) are in the cabinet of Mr. R. D. Lacoe, from Plymouth, F vein.
SIGILLARIA CORTEI, Brgt.Ribs narrow; scars distant, oblong-ovate, obtuse at both ends; corticated surface thinly striate.
Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 467, Pl. CXLVII, f. 3, 4.
Gold., Fl. Sarraep., II, p. 47, Pl. VIII, f. 15.
Gein., Verst., p. 45, Pl. VI, f. 1-3 ; IX, f. 7.
Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 87.
Sigillaria dubia, Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 872.
Species closely allied to the former. The ribs plano-convex, generally narrower, average six to seven millimeters in width. The corticated surface is thinly striate or obscurely rugose; the cicatrices are narrower, a little strangled below the top, more distant; the furrows are deep and large, well defined. Geinitz, l.c., represents the species from a splendid specimen bearing leaves. The only American specimen which I refer to this species is that described in Geol. of Penn'a., l.c., as Sigillaria dubia. It differs merely by slightly larger ribs, not larger, however, than those of f. 2 of Gein., l.c.
Habitat—Lower coal bed of Trevorton, Penn'a.
Ribs broad, nearly flat,
indistinctly lineate; furrows deep and narrow; scars comparatively
small, exactly ovate; surface marked by a few round tubercles, without
regular order of position.
This species, improperly named, differs especially from all those of the group by the large costae, more than two centimeters broad. The ovate scars, seven millimeters long, six millimeters broad, in the lower part, are shorter and more enlarged to the rounded base than those of Sigillaria ovalis, its nearest relative. They are also more distant, ten millimeters at least. The subcorticated surface is very obscurely lineate, a little more distinctly than the cortex; its vascular scars are simple oval mamillae, as in Sigillaria ovalis.
Habitat—Lower coal bed of Trevorton, with the former.
|E. Ribs large, generally divided in three zones.
Trunk ribbed; ribs parallel, moderately elevated, divided into five bands, of which the central is most prominent, widest, rugose, and of unequal width; lateral stripes striated longitudinally; leaf scars pyriform, crowned by a long claw-like appendage, which is sometimes bifid; vascular impressions low down in the leaf-scars; decorticated surface ribbed, marked by linear depressions.
SIGILLARIA ACUMINATA, Newby.
Ann. of Sci. of Clevel., v. 1, p. 164, f. 1.
The ribs are fifteen millimeters wide, the scars two and a half centimeters distant, obtuse at both ends. The author remarks that in obscure specimens the acuminate appendage of the leaf-scars is hardly perceptible. Except this and the somewhat lower position of the vascular impressions, the characters of the species are the same as in Sigillaria rugosa, Brgt.
Habitat—Shale over the coal of Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio.
SIGILLARIA RUGOSA, Brgt.Costae flat; furrows narrow, distinct, obtusely carinate, bordered with narrow, lateral, smooth zones; medial zone punctulate or rugulose between the scars; scars discoid, oval, distant; vascular scars three, in the upper part of the disks, the middle punctiform, the lateral oblong parallel.
Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 476, Pl. CXLIV, f. 2.
Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 873.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 92.
This description is translated from Brongniart, who made it from American specimens. From the figure, l.c., the ribs, including the flat narrow zones which border them, are eighteen millimeters broad, with a deep, narrow furrow. The scars, ovate, obtuse at both ends, gradually widening from the top to below the middle, are eight millimeters long, six millimeters broad in the widest part, filling the medial punctate flattened zone of the ribs, which is slightly contracted between the scars nearly two centimeters distant. The decorticated surface is striate, its vascular scars simple, narrowly oval, five millimeters long.
On this species Brongniart remarks that with two others which lie describes, Sigillaria Deutschiana and Sigillaria canaliculata, it has the costae divided in three longitudinal zones, the medial one, containing the leaf-scars and the lateral ones, separated by a less distinct furrow, offering generally a notable difference in the aspect of the surface, etc. Species with this character are rightly separated in a peculiar section of the genus.
Goldenberg, fl. Sarraep., II, p. 48, P1. VIII, f. 26, describes and figures as a variety of Sigillaria rugosa, a form which, from what is said above by the author, should be considered different, the ribs being very narrow, eight millimeters, without flattened borders; the scars only eight millimeters distant, very small, five millimeters long, four millimeters broad, and the subcorticated vascular scar a round mammilla.. The only character I find in concordance between the two forms is the rugosity of the surface between the scars. The relation of Sigillaria rugosa with Sigillaria Pittstoniana is remarked in the description of this species.
Habitat—The variety, according to Schimper, is common in Saarbruck. The form described by Brongniart is from a specimen sent to him from Wilkesbarre, by Cist. I have as yet seen nothing referrable to it from the American coal measures.
SIGILLARIA MARGINATA, Sp. nov., Plate LXXI, f. 5.Costae very large, bordered by a broad striate zone; medial furrows distinct, but narrow; scars large, distant, truncate at the top, enlarged to the middle, rounded to the base; surface between the scars more or less punctate; decorticated surface lineate, its scars double, oval, long, contiguous in the middle.
The ribs, two and a half centimeters broad, are bordered on each side by striate distinct zones, as broad as the medial space occupied by the scars, and separated by very narrow furrows; the middle costa, six to seven millimeters broad; is obliquely rugose above and below the scars, punctate in the intervals. The cicatrices, eight millimeters long, six millimeters broad below the middle, have the vascular scars in the middle, the central punctiform or marked by two short parallel lines, the lateral ones long, vertical, parallel and linear. The decorticated surface has the characters described above.
As seen from the figure, the decorticated part looks like an upper cortex. But the specimen is an overturned impression. The middle zone of the ribs is somewhat convex. The line traced above the figure represents a cross section of the surface.
This species is distantly related to the former, and also to Sigillaria canaliculata, Brgt., mentioned above as referable to this group.
Habitat—The species is represented by specimen reverse of No. 460, in the collection of Mr. R. D. Lacoe. It is from Plymouth, Penn'a, F. vein.
SIGILLARIA LACOEI, Sp. nov., Plate LXXII, Figs. 12-12b.Ribs large, convex, canaliculate in the medial zone; leaf-scars small, often deformed, narrowed at both ends and obtuse, or, when in a good state of preservation, oval or ovate, emarginate at the top, scarcely enlarged to the rounded base; vascular scars in the upper part of the disks.
Sigillaria discoidea ? Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 873, Plate XIV, f. 5.
This species, represented by a large number of specimens, may be considered of the same group as the former, the ribs being composed of a medial zone, flat or concave, with two very large distinctly convex borders. The bark is thick, two to three millimeters, according to the width of the ribs which measure one and an half to five and an half centimeters across. The outside zones are highly convex, the medial one concave, narrow, four to six millimeters broad, with scars distant, three to four centimeters, often deformed by lateral compression of the outside zones, very small, seven to ten millimeters long, three to four millimeters broad, oval, acute at both ends when deformed as in Atlas, f. 12, emarginate at the top and round at the base, in the normal state of preservation, Atlas f. 12a, enlarged twice underneath. The decorticated surface is convex without trace of the medial concave zone, distinctly and regularly lineate. Its leaf scars are generally represented by one, sometimes by two, mamillae, originally five to six millimeters long, rounded and broader at one end, tapering to a point, Atlas f. 12b, same specimen as f. 12a. I say originally, for the subcortical scars in this species greatly vary, increasing in size under the cortex, while the surface scars preserve the same size and outlines. Thus, specimens with leaf-scars like Atlas, f. 12a, have subcortical narrowly oval scars one and an half centimeter long, either simple or double, separated or contiguous on the sides. Old stems have them two centimeters long, eight to ten millimeters broad, oblong, cordate at base, slightly emarginate at the top, show. ing thus the lateral connection of two Others still are large and ovate, nearly round, tuberculate, like the discs of Sigillaria discoidea, Lesqx. l.c., a form which may merely represent a variety of this or of one of the following species which have the subcortical scars subject to a metamorphism of the same kind.
Habitat—Pittston. Seen in numerous specimens in the collection of Mr. R. D. Lacoe, from Plymouth vein F.
SIGILLARIA LAEVIGATA, Brgt. Plate LXXI, Figs. 1-3.Costae very large, smooth; furrows deep, carinate; cicatrices small, hexagonal, truncate or emarginate at top, enlarged to the rounded or angular base; subcortical, surface distinctly striate; its scars oval, elongated, contiguous, separated in the middle by a round or oval areole.
Brgt., Hist. d. veg. foss., p. 471, Pl. CXLIII.
Gold., Fl. Sarraep., II, p. 51, Pl. VIII, f. 32.
Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 873.
Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 93.
The scars of the cortex are rarely preserved, at least upon American specimens. They are described by Brongniart and Schimper as regularly hexagonal, while all those I have been able to examine have the lower part more generally rounded than angular. These scars are very small, at least in proportion to the great width of the ribs, which measure five to six centimeters in diameter or more, while the leaf-scars are only five millimeters long and as broad near the base. As seen Atlas, f. 1-3, the subcortical scars are variously deformed. Atlas f. 3 has the tubercles oval, contiguous, at least at the top and the base, with a depression in the middle. In Atlas, f. 1 and 2, they are united in one, flattened, large, two to three centimeters long, one to one and an half broad, sometimes even much larger, diversely cut, even in their central part as those in the upper part of Atlas, f. 2. The subcortical scars indicate that their growth has been progressing under the bark, and that the deformation is caused by various degrees of compression, according to the space which they had for their development. This expansion is not easily explained; for the bark, more than one millimeter thick, is not split as seen Atlas, f. 1, which has the subcortical cicatrices already of far greater size and development than those of the cortex. The bark is, however, rarely preserved upon the same specimens bearing enlarged subcortical deformed bolsters.
Habitat—Not rare, but generally found in a decorticated state. Splendid and very instructive specimens are in the cabinet of Mr. R. D. Lacoe, from Plymouth vein F, and others around Pittston.
SIGILLARIA RENIFORMIS, Brgt., Plate LXX, Figs. 5-9.Costae not as large as in the former species; furrows less distinct; leaf-scars reniform, emarginate at the top, enlarged on the sides, rounded at the base, not or scarcely angular; vascular scars, three, the medial large, punctate, the lateral ones inflated, semi-lunar, diverging obliquely downward; subcortical scars double, vertically oval, rarely contiguous, deformed in many ways.
Brgt., Hist. d. veget. foss., p. 470, Pl. CXLII.
Gold., Fl. Sarraep., II, p. 50, Pl. VIII, f. 31.
Ll. and Hutt., foss. Fl., I, Pl. LVII, LXXI
Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 873.
Schp., Paleont. veget., II, f. 94, Pl. LXVIII, f. 9.
Sigillaria monostachya, Ll. and Hutt., l.c., 1, Pl. LXXII.
Sigillaria alternans, ibid., Pl. LVI.
Gold., Fl. Sarraep., p. 50, Pl. IX, f. 5-8.
Gein., Verst., p. 47, Pl. VIII, f. 2.
The difference in the characters of this and the former species is clear enough when one has on hand good corticated specimens with the reniform impressions as in Atlas, f. 5. But corticated specimens of this species are still more rarely found than those of Sigillaria laevigata, and in a decorticated state, the deformed scars of both species are often indifferently referable to one or the other species. Brongniart describes the subcortical scars as geminate and Schimper as joined in the middle. This last character is scarcely if ever remarked upon the American specimens which, in the decorticated state, have the scars double and distinct, Atlas f. 6, like those of Sigillaria alternans, as figured by Ll. and Hutt., l.c., Pl. LVI, and by Gold., l.c., f. 5. In older stems they become more distant proportionally to their enlargement as in f. 8 of our plate, which is comparable to that of Geinitz, l.c., Pl. VIII, f. 2, and then more and more distant as in Atlas, f. 7, having between them a kind of depression with opposite curved lines like lateral leaf-scars. Atlas, f. 9, with cicatrices double, upraised, vertically rhomboidal, coarsely deeply striate. across, each marked in the center by a round small cavity, probably also represents a peculiar deformation of the scars of this species caused perhaps by long exposure to atmospheric action near the base of the trunks. To give a complete representation of all the variations of these scars, observable sometimes upon a same large specimen like those in Mr. R. D. Lacoe's collection, would demand indeed a large number of plates.
Habitat—Extremely common at some localities, especially in the anthracite basin of Wilkesbarre, Pittston, Pottsville, New Philadelphia, etc. Rare in the western bituminous coal fields.