One might get an idea of the prodigious activity of the vegetable life during the Carboniferous Period by merely computing the amount of vegetable matter that had to be provided by nature for the composition of a single bed of coal of average thickness. One might also know something about the multiplicity, the diversity, and some of the peculiarities of the coal plants by an examination of the plates and figures of some special work on the vegetable palaeontology of the coal, or by merely glancing at a number of specimens of fossil vegetable remains found in strata of Carboniferous age. But the impression thus received would be a mere obscure shadow of the reality; for what is a bed of coal compared to the mass of combustible matter entering into the composition of a vast system of coal beds, of various thickness, like that of the Carboniferous of North America ? And in regard to the degree of reality of our acquaintance with the Flora of the coal we have only to remark that this Flora is merely known, as yet, by fragments of different organs, of leaves, of bark of trees marked with peculiar impressions, of fruits, etc.; fragments disseminated and fossilized in beds of shale, or in strata of divers composition intervening in the conformation of the coal measures. Not only, do the fragments not give to the student a full acquaintance with the characters of the plants, but every day new materials are discovered which represent either simple organs or parts of plants unknown to the palaeontologist.
Description of the Coal Flora of the Carboniferous Formation in Pennsylvania and throughout the United States.
by Leo Lesquereux.
Like the vegetation of the present epoch, that of the Carboniferous has been modified and diversified by local circumstances and is therefore differently represented at different localities if separated by a considerable distance. This can easily be seen in comparing the Coal Flora of Pennsylvania and Ohio with that of Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, etc. A certain degree of relation only is recognizable between the plants of strata of the same stage; but a large number of species are only locally found. The differences in the vegetation are still more marked according to the stratigraphical distribution of the measures, or between the plants found in strata of different horizons; and as new coal fields have been recently opened and coal beds worked in Virginia, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, etc., at a lower stage than that of the northern basins, a mass of specimens of fossil plants, not yet known in this country, have been discovered and sent from those localities.
As fast as it was possible to work, I have studied the specimens, preparing plates and descriptions for the publication of a supplement to the Coal Flora of the United. States which I ant now forced to bring to a close, although collectors are still at work and materials continue to come in. I have to leave therefore a large amount of specimens still unexamined; and I foresee that there is left unknown, for future research and study of the history of the vegetation of the coal, an amount of materials, at least as great and as important as that which has already been published.*
I have written the above remarks as a kind of introduction, first, to a brief record of the essential additions recently made by this new volume to the Coal Flora of the United States**, and secondly, to a detailed description of the species, which are illustrated in twenty new plates.
The additions referred to are :
1st. A remarkable fucoidal plant represented by a large specimen in a perfect state of preservation, on Plate LXXXVIII. A meager fragment of this plant had been figured in Geol. Survey of Penna. 1858, (Plate XXIII,) mentioned (p. 884) as an Algoid resembling a Desmarestia. The plant was examined in England by Prof. Balfour and there figured without either description or name.
2d. On the Calamarieae and Equisetaceae a number of branches bearing fructified spikes referable by authors to Calamostachys, Volkmannia Macrostachya, etc. Remains of this kind have been extremely rare until now. Those which have been procured and which are figured and described herewith shed some new light on the question of the fructifications of the Calamarieae.
3d. On the ferns, a number of the new species represent remarkable types as yet unknown in the Coal Flora of the United States. Others, of large size, define more clearly the characters insufficiently observed before on too small fragments, or afford means of referring to one and the same species separate parts which have been described under different names. We, have besides, a number of species of ferns with the fructifications in correlation with the sterile plants. Also a sterile pinna of the remarkable Sorocladus sagittatus has been obtained in connection with a fertile part of that plant, thus confirming the reference of those fructifications to ferns.
4th. The Lycopodiaceae are becoming better known;—by the discovery of specimens of very large cones of Lepidophloios, which, by the destruction of the sporanges or of their blades, show under them enormous agglomerations of macrospores;—by species of Lycopods, two of them fructified, of very peculiar beautiful types;—by a large cone of Macrocystis or Lepidocystis, with sporanges attached to the axis, the upper containing macrospores, and by fruiting specimens of some plants of uncertain affinity which I had related to Cordaites under the name of Taeniophyllum, but which, by their spores, appear to be close relatives of Isoetes.
5th. On the Sigillarieae, two remarkably fine new species have been procured, one in Iowa, another in Pennsylvania.
6th. In the fruits, especially, the discoveries have been very valuable. From a large number of specimens, I have been able to put together in juxtaposition upon three plates, different forms of these organs, as they are found, either covered with their testa or separated from it as nuclei. These numerous kinds of fruits, so peculiar and so different in their forms, sufficiently show the prodigious diversity of the vegetation of the Coal Measures; and prove also how little we yet know of the plants which they represent; for, excepting a few species referable to Cordaites the relationship of all the others is unknown.
DESCRIPTIONS.Root composed of tubulose? flattened filaments, irregularly branching and widely spreading from the base of the rhizoma. Rhizoma cylindrical, simple, long, and thick. Fronds at first top-shaped, or in a compact globular tuft before their development, very large, tree-like, and many times divided when fully opened; primary and secondary branchcs thick, somewhat flat on one side, distinctly dichotomous; branchlets pinnately dichotomous ; ultimate divisions cylindrical, narrow, pointed.
CELLULAR CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS.
DENDROPHYCUS DESORII, Sp.nov., Plate LXXXVIII, Fig.1The roots or radicular appendages of this plant appear widely spreading, being seen in profusion upon the shale in the localities where the fronds are found. They are apparently cylindrical or tubulous, though always flattened upon the shale by compression, irregularly dichotomous, often branching at right angles, 3 to 4 m.m. in diameter, of coriaceous or horny texture, shining on the surface.
None of these radicular filaments have been found in connection with the rhizoma which is 1.20 to 1.50 m. long, perfectly cylindrical, 3-1/2 to 4 c.m. in diameter, simple and regular in its whole length with a rough surface. The toughness of its texture is shown in the fact that the specimen found had preserved the cylindrical form in its whole length. The top of the rhizoma, abruptly enlarged into a globular shape resembling a cabbage-head 17 c.m. in diameter, looked, when broken, like a convolute undeveloped frond, with branches densely rolled together into a ball where the divisions or the relative disposition of the branches could not be distinctly observed. The fronds, very large, 1. to 1.25 m. long by 50 c.m. broad, are composed of cylindrical divisions, the primary and secondary ones being thick, the larger 2 c.m. in diameter, flattened on the surface, all gradually smaller from the base to their ends, closely distichous, dichotomous, flexuous, with oblique multiple sub-divisions, the ultimate two ranked, be, ing very closely pinnately distichous, cylindrical, pointed or gradually narrowing from the middle and effaced at the apex. The color and consistence are that of the stone whereupon it is embedded.
As far as I know, this plant has no marked affinity to any species of fossil marine Algae, being only distantly related, perhaps, by the cylindrical form of its sub-divisions, to the genus Palaeophycus of Hall, and by its oblique dichotomous branches to Buthotrephis of the same author. It belongs to a type far more advanced in development than those of the Silurian fucoids. Comparing it to marine plants of the present epoch, Professor Balfour of Scotland finds its affinity to the genus Desmarestia, whose fronds are horny, coriaceous, plane or filiform, with distichous divisions. The great size and the mode of growth are however very different and seem to relate the plant to the Caulerpeae or Syphonaceae whose primary stems are strong, rooting, generally horizontal, throwing up erect branches of various shapes, the branches round, cylindrical at base, representing the part which I have described as rhizorna.
Habitat. This plant was first found in the Red shale below Pottsville, the No. XI Mauch Chunk Red shale or Vespertine of Rogers, near the top of the formation or even in the lower part of No. XII, the Conglomerate measures; also abundant in the same formation, in the bluffs of the Susquehanna above Pittston. Though large specimens were found, none of them did show the fronds in a very good state of preservation. It has later been obtained in splendid specimens in a quarry near Davenport, Iowa, in a bed of clay and hardened sand-rock, traversing like a dyke the corniferous limestone overlaid by the Hamilton Group. This location would put the fossil into the Devonian. But the true age of the clay and sand-rock, which appears to be an abnormal deposit into cavitities of the Corniferous, is not positively ascertained.* The specimen figured belongs to the Smithsonian Institution.
The new materials which I have had the opportunity to examine since the publication of the Coal Flora have added nothing to what is already known of the stems of Calamites. But some important data have been procured in regard to the fructifications of Asterophyllites which are considered by authors as branches of Calamites, and also to the roots of Calamites, the stems of Annularia and other organs. All these merit consideration in this review, which is made in following the same order as in the first volume of the Coal Flora.
ROOTS OF CALAMITES RAMOSUS, Artis, Plate XCII, Figs. 1-4.In speaking of the roots or rootlets of Calamites, I have said that these organs are very rarely observed in the Coal Measures and that I had not been able to find as yet any trace of these remains attached to stems. This blank has been filled by the discovery near Lawrence, Kansas, of five stems of Calamites 1-1/2 to 4 c.m. in diameter, bearing, at their round conical base, rootlets seen embedded into the stone as well as the cicatrices of their points of attachment upon the stems. These rootlets are not in bundles but simple, somewhat enlarged at the point of attachment 1-1/2 m.m. thick and, gradually decreasing downward, filiform, scarcely 1 m. m. in diameter. They penetrate the stone, passing outward and downward in a curve, from their point of attachment in regular rows a little above the tubercles or leaf scars, more rarely upon the articulations, the point of insertion being marked by a deep round perforation about half as large ms the convex tubercles to which they are parallel. They are however irregular in horizontal distances, the space between them varying from 2 to 4 m.m. The whole length of the radicles cannot be seen. By a vertical breaking of the block imbedding the stems of these Calamites, the rootlets are exposed for 1 to 3 c.m. from their origin to the points where they penetrate the stone. The scars of the rootlets, as well as the tubercles of the leaves and the articulations, are distinctly seen down to the rounded or subtruncate part of the inverted cones which constitute the base of the stems. The lowest articulations, less than 6 m.m. apart, are gradually more distant up to the eighth one, where, at 7 c.m. from the base, the space between them is 15 m. m. There is no trace of any rhizoma with these specimens which are all isolated. But another specimen of the same locality has three stems, two of which appear to originate from an inclined stock resembling a fragment of Calamites, as if they were attached to it like branches, while another gradually narrowed to a point or to a sharply obconical base, bears rootlets and merely touches the stock by its point, in the same way as are represented the young shoots derived from an horizontal branch in Grand'Eury's "Fl. Carb.," Pl. I, Fig. 2. In all the specimens observed without connection to a parent stock, the basilar point of the stem is a small blunt mamilla, smooth or without any trace of fracture or point of attachment, and the radicles are diverging all around the conical base.
These specimens fully confirm the observations of Grand'Eury upon the Calamites which he considers as originating in the deep mud of swamps, where they germinate from mere filaments, either without any kind of rhizome, or attached to an original stalk or subterranean stem imbedded in the mud.
The French author describes the rootlets as simple or ramose. In the specimens described here they are all simple. He remarks that he could not see distinctly the mode and the point of attachment of the rootlets, and supposed that they had been fixed to the stems just at the joints of the articulations, or immediately above, as he has figured their cicatrice in Pl. I, Fig. 4, l.c. They are rather higher, at least in one of the specimens, producing in their series a ring marked with small perforations above the tubercles or near the middle of the internodes when these are very close. On another specimen they originate just above the articulations at the base of the ribs.
Habitat—The specimens No. 593 are in the cabinet of Mr. R. D. Lacoe, of Pittston, all obtained from Kansas.
CALAMITES RAMIFER, ? Stur. Plate XCI, Figs. 4, 4a.The first definition of this species was made from an impression, and the ribs, therefore, have been described as furrows. It should be amended as follows:
Stems small, bark thin, articulations and ribs scarcely marked upon the bark, distinct upon the decorticated surface; ribs close, narrow, flat ; furrows very narrowly carinate, forming by impression an acute narrow ridge; tubercles rarely distinct, generally small, round, like pinheads, sometimes in double rows above and below the articulations; branches long, nearly at right angles, narrowed at their point of insertion ; articulations generally distant ; leaves in vcrticils of 7 to 12, each 12 to 22 m. 7n. long to 3 m.m. broad, fiat, lanceolate, acute, slightly narrowed from the middle to the connate base.
Though the internodes are sometimes very long, especially upon the branches, they become shorter toward the base of the stems, the articulations upon one of the specimens being only about 1 c.m. distant.
This species has been found at the same locality in very numerous specimens, from large stems 0-12 c.m. in diameter, always flattened, to branches with leaves still attached to them, as in the specimen figured. It has been somewhat difficult to obtain the branches bearing leaves and to distinctly see the whorls of leaves and their mode of attachment. The mode of division of the branches and branchlets, as seen Fig. 4, is that of Annularia, not of Asterophyllites. It is true that the same mode of division of the branches, nearly at right angles, is remarked upon the figure given by Geinitz. "Verst.," Pl. XVI, Fig. 2, of Asterophyllites foliosus, Lind & Hutt, a species referred by Brongniart and European authorities, as a branch, to Calamites Cistii. The relation of the American species to that of Europe is also seen in the leaves, which though comparatively broader and shorter than those figuered by the German author, have about the same facies. Nevertheless I cannot admit the identity of the American species with that represented by Geinitz, l.c., and still less with that of Lindley, for the following reasons:
1st. The stems of the plant which I refer to, Calamites ramifer, positively differ from those of Calamites Cistii, Brgt. & Auct., a species common in the American coal measures, having its range of distribution, generally if not always, above the conglomerate, even high above in the measures, and as said already, Asterophyllites foliosus, as represented by Geinitz, is considered a branch of Calamites Cistii.
2d. The plant described and figured by Lindley and Hutton can not be the same as that figured by Geinitz and still less as the one represented by the American specimen; for the English authors describe Asterophyllites foliosus as "a tall branching plant, with leaves 8-10 in a whorl, perfectly distinct at their base, a little shorter than the internodes, of a linear lanceolate figure, with a slightly falcate direction. There seems to have been a midrib but this is so imperfectly indicated that nothing certain can be indicated about it." In the figure given by Geinitz of this species, the leaves comparatively shorter, are twice as broad, apparently connate at the base, and, as seen Fig. 3a, the nerve is distinct and prominent. The difference in the characters is still greater in the American plant described here, whose leaves are connate at base, still longer and broader than those figured by Geinitz, not soft, but of hard compact texture, not acuminate, but rather obtusely pointed, with the nerve broad and distinct and the branches and branchlets at right angles, having indeed, in its leaves and branches, the characters Annularia. It must be remembered, however, that Geinitz identifies Fig. 4 of his Pl. XVI, a fruit bearing spike, with Asterophyllites tuberculata, Ll. & Hutt., Pl. XIV and I believe that the fragments of Lindley, figured under this name, represent the same species as the spikes in Coal Flora, Plate LXXXIX, Figs. 1 and 2, and these beautiful specimens with others of the same kind not figured, have been found in the sub-conglomerate measures of Pittston, like the fragments referred to Calamites ramifer. But there is still a wider discrepancy between the figures given by Geinitz of the fruiting spikes which he considers as fructifications of Asterophyllites foliosus and those given by Lindley of Asterophyllites tuberculata. It is evident that they do not represent the same species. The spikes of Geinitz are of the genus Volkmannia, referable to Asterophyllites and perhaps to Calamites Cistii; those figured by Lindley are spikes of Annularia, as recognized by Schimper and as shown by the beautiful figures given by Geinitz himself of the fructifications of Annularia longifolia.
From this I am authorized to believe that the stems which I consider as referable to Calamites ramifer are stems of Annularia; that therefore species of Annularia cannot be considered as herbaceous floating plants; but that, like Asterophyllites, they belong to the Calamites.
Mr. Lacoe writes me on this subject: "I have upon four parts of a once large stone upwards of 50 verticils of Annularia longifolia, the leaves of which vary from 1-1/2 to 3-1/2 c.m. in length, the large ones attached to branches 4 to 5 m.m. in width, flattened. These branches come out from larger ones, or stems 15 to 16 m.m. wide, and upon the same stone, there is a Calamites stem which appears to be of the same species and measures 7-1/2 to 8 c. m. in diameter. The articulations are 18 to 20 c.m. apart, one of them with a branch still attached, which, 18 to 20 m.m. in diameter, is broken at its second articulation 35 m.m. from its point of origin. Upon the same fragment of stone, there is another limb or branch 12 to 15 m.m. wide, passing under the main or large stem in the direction of its other articulation, and to this limb is attached one of the small branches with verticils of leaves. I have no doubt that all these fragments of stems of various sizes belong to the same species."
Calamites. The most remarkable part of the specimen is the row of contiguous large round cicatrices resembling branch-scars, placed upon one of the articulations. These cicatricies vary from 5 to 7 m.m. in diameter, are exactly circular, with a deep central point appearing like a vascular scar coming out of the stem a little below the articulation. Except this the surface of the scars is quite smooth. Only the half of one of those round cicatrices is seen at the border of the specimen upon the lower articulation.
These scars cannot be considered as scars of branches, not even of adventive branches. They are also too large for scars of roots or rootlets. Their position in a row and contiguous to each other is abnormal, and as far as I know, nothing of that kind has been observed upon sterns of Calamites or of Bornia. Prof. Stur, who has particularly studied the plants of these genera procured from the Culm of Germany, has figured, "Culm Flora," Pl. II, Fig. 2, a specimen of Bornia radiata, which he considers a very finely preserved one, and on which the internodial lines, the scars of rootlets, those of the leaves or tubercles and even those of some branches, are distinctly marked. But these branch-scars, like those represented upon stems of Calamites ramosus, cruciatus, &c., figured by Brongniart, are distantly scattered and have a diameter of only 4-5 in. m. upon stems much larger than the one I have figured. The fragment described by Stur and quoted above, is also a piece of a large stem. The branch-scars are all at a distance from each other, some small, not larger than the tubercles; others larger, but of irregular outline, not in any way resembling those of the American specimen. Some of the branch-scars in Brongniart's figure of Calamites cruciatus, "Veg. Foss.," Pl. 19, may be compared to these in their shape, but they are also of very different size and always at a distance from each other and their surface is never smooth, but marked by grooves disposed star-like from the center to the circumference, like the scars left by detached branches on the trunks of Calamites ramosus.
Habitat—The specimen was sent by Prof. F. L. Harvey from Fayetteville, Arkansas.
BORNIA RADIATA ?, Brgt., Plate XCIII, Fig. 2, (a branch.)The figure of this plant represents a branch of which I have given a short description in Coal Flora, p. 31, second paragraph, referring it to Bornia radiata, Brgt.
In comparing that branch with the figure given of a fragment of a branch representing a verticil of leaves copied from Ettingshausen by Schimper, "Pal. Veget." Pl. XXIV, Fig. 2, the characters appear identical. In Bornia radiata, however, the leaves are generally somewhat broader, sometimes flexuous and split or bifid, especially near the apex. The splitting of the leaves is not clearly seen on the American specimen, as the branch covered by a leaf of Cordaites grandifolius is only seen, somewhat obscurely, through it. The apices of the leaves appear really bifid, in some places but the appearance may be caused by the crossing of the leaves in their superposition. That fine branch, however, cannot be referred to any species of Asterophyllites. Asterophyllites longifolius and Asterophyllites rigidus the only ones which could be compared to it, are far different in the characters of their leaves.
The specimen is from the sub-conglomerate formation, Campbell's ledge, Pittston, and most of the fragments of stems obtained of Bornia radiata in the coal measures of the continent are from sub-conglomerate measures mostly found in Alabama, Tennessee and Arkansas. One specimen only from Cannelton is apparently referable to it.
CALAMODENDRON, Brgt., Plate XCII, Fig. 5.The specimen described, Coal Flora, p. 32, Plate LXXV, Fig. 16 [note correction - GL,III, ed], agrees in its character with the description given of the genus by Grand'Eury and though flattened, seems to concord in some degree with the beautiful figure by which the French author represents a restored stem of Calamodendron.
In the description of the genus, Grand'Eury says of the stems of Calamodendron, that they are composed of two kinds of alternating radiating bands, the ones of prosenchymatous fibres without parietal marks, the other of scalariform vessels. These alternate bands being continued lengthwise from an alternative of surfaces corresponding to that of the Calamites, the articulations are more or less distant, the furrows are somewhat narrowed before joining them, and that is not remarked upon the Calamites. Branch scars are formed upon nearly all the joints, and these scars are more or less similar to those of Calamites cruciatus. The thickness of bark, increasing in proportion to that of the wood, represents more or less distinctly the superficial striae.
From this we have to conclude, that for the reference of flattened fossil Calamariae to Calamodendron, we have to consider especially the narrowing of the furrows or costae in joining the articulations, their mode of diverging toward. some points, the scars of leaves or branches placed upon the articulations and the thickness of the bark.
The specimen figured Coal Flora, Plate LXXV, Fig. 16, evidently presents these characters. We have now still another of exactly the same nature, only much larger, where the characters indicated above are far more distinctly marked. It is a fragment of a calamitoid stem 22 c.m. long. The ribbed part quite flattened, embedded into a piece of black bituminous shale, is 6-1/4 c. m. broad, bordered on each side by a flat band of hard compact black matter 1-1/2 c.m. in diameter. The articulations upon the stems are very distinct, 2-1/2 to 4 c.m. distant and slightly constricted. The striae are quite regular in the middle of the internodes and there 1 m. m. wide, as well as the furrows; but toward the articulations, they become all contracted by two or three, diverging toward small round points apparently scars of tubercles or leaves. Besides, this and at regular distances, six or seven of the ribs are bent at the base out of their vertical direction tending toward large round scars of branches marked by mamillae 2-1/2 to 3 m.m. in diameter, which are placed also upon the articulations in horizontal line with the leaf scars. On the exposed flat surface, the branch scars are at a horizontal distance of 3-1/2 c.m., not in vertical line with those of the upper and lower articulations, but alternating regularly in their relative position, or placed alternately in fours upon each articulation, as in a quincunxial order. In the small specimen figured, Plate LXXV, the divergence of the ribs toward points or scars placed upon the joints of the articulations could not be represented on account of the narrowness of the ribs; but even upon that small stem, the points marking the scars of leaves, like those of branches, are distinctly seen with the lens. The relative position is, however, modified by variability in the width of the ribbed stems.
The new specimen, obtained like the other from Cannelton, presents another remarkable appearance. The ribbed part representing the woody layer is at one place only, in the middle, covered by a coating of coaly matter representing the bark, its smooth surface being marked by obscure vertical lines corresponding to the costae of the stem, and the thickness of that piece of bark is not more than 1/2 m.m. The smooth compact borders of the ribbed stem which are 1-1/2
c.m. broad are not transformed into coal but stony, like the shale, and it does not seem possible to suppose that they represent the bark, unless it is admitted with some authors (Profs. Williamson and Stur among others) that the bark was of a cellular soft tissue, comparatively very thick, loosely adhering to the stem. It is therefore admissible that, in some cases, the lateral part of the bark has been embedded into clay and has thus been petrified along the stem, preserving its whole thickness, while the upper part, vertically compressed upon the stem, has been transformed into coal. Prof. Stur asserts that the shrinkage of cellular tissue, in its transformation into hard coal, is equivalent in bulk to 26-27, so that a woody mass of 26 meters should be reduced by the process of carbonization to 1 meter of coal. It is about the proportion existing between the bark surface 2 m.m. thick and the stony border which measures c.m., or is 36 times as thick as the coaly bark. Without further pursuing the discussion in this matter I will remark that both the specimens considered here as Calamodendron have the character of Calamites approximatus, Brgt., and considering these characters, the only ones observable from non-silicified specimens, they should be referable to the genus Calamites.
I have seen lately two large specimens of Calamites approximatus, one 33 c.m. long, 16 c.m. broad, flattened to about 2 c.m., with articulations 2-1/2 c.m. distant, all equal, 14 in number, the whole surface being covered by a thin coaly layer or bark not thicker than a strong leaf of paper. The other specimen, got from the same place and much smaller, is 6 to 7 c.m. broad, not so much flattened, its articulations at the same distance as in the last and all equal, with a bark 3 to 4 m.m. in thickness. In admitting the rate of shrinkage of the bark as indicated by Stur that would show the thickness of the bark to have been originally 11-12 c. m., or much thicker than the stem, for it can not be admitted that stems, embedded into clay and transformed into stony matter, have been subjected to the same degree of contraction in their bulk as the bark, the only part which has been reduced to coal.
On this subject, Prof. Williamson, resuming a discussion upon the structure of the Calamites, remarks;* that there was introduced into the bark of these
On the essential differences which separate the genus Calamodendron from Calamites as represented by Calamites approximatus, there is still a great deal of uncertainty and of diversity in the opinions of the phytopalaeontologists.
Genus ASTEROPHYLLITES, Brgt.The specimens of fossil plants referable to this genus are generally found as stems bearing branches and whorls of leaves, like those which have been described Coal Flora, p. 35, Pl. II, Fig. 3.
The fructifications which as yet have not been satisfactorily described are rarely found in such a state of preservation that their essential characters may be satisfactorily recognized. They are of two kinds or of different organism for the same species, viz: in small globose sporanges or macrospores, placed in the axils of upper leaves of branches, forming a kind of loose terminal spike, Calamostachys, Schp., as in Plate XCIII Fig. 4; or in receptacles containing sporanges, placed in whorls and in successive rows, forming cylindrical, generally narrow spikes covered with imbricate scales at the outside, like those of Plate XC, Fig. 4, or Plate XCIII, Fig. 5. These spikes have generally been described as Volkmannia or Bruckmannia. Their relation to Asterophyllites or to Calamites has for a long time been hypothetically admitted and lately been proved by the anatomical researches of Renault. The first kind of these fructifications has its structure clearly exposed by the position of the small globular bodies placed in whorls on the axils of leaves which have the same characters as those of the stems. From observations made upon the spike Plate LXXXIX, Fig. 5, they appear to represent true macrospores.
The structure of the second kind of fructifications (Volkmannia) is much more complex. It has been admirably elucidated by the anatomical analysis made by Binney* and the excellent figures given of the structure of the spikes of what he has called Calamodendron commune. Some figures of the same organism have
been reproduced by Schimper in "Palaeont. Veget.," Pl. XXIII, Figs. 5-10, from specimens prepared for the microscope and preserved in the collection of Dr. Hooker, ascribing the species to the Asterophylliteae under the name of Calamostachys Binneyana. The description given by Binney of these fructifications is partly recorded as follows: "The spikes contain a double row of sporange receptacles, placed immediately one above the other. The receptacles are formed by scales which proceed from the central axis of the cones, at first at right angles, and then, when reaching the outside, taking a vertical direction, somewhat like the scales of Lepidostrobus, but arranged horizontally in rows one above the other through the whole series, not in a spiral direction. The sporanges are of an irregular egg-shape, slightly elongated and are arranged. by fours symmetrically around a thorn-like process or spindle coming from the axis. In each of the receptacles, then, there are six of these series of four, arranged radially with regard to the central axis, so altogether there are twenty-four sporanges in every receptacle. Each sporange has a covering composed of a single row of cells which generally shows evidence of some disturbance, so that the original form of the sporanges is not often well displayed. They are filled with numerous round spore-like bodies, some of them having apparently a triradiate appearance and looking as if they had divided into four sporules. These are not unlike the spores seen in Lepidodendron Brownii, but are more transparent, not so dark in color and of smaller size."*
I have been able to see the observations of Binney confirmed, as far at least as it was possible to make a comparison without anatomical process, by a number of American specimens, one of them figured Plate XC, Fig. 4. From what is seen upon these specimens, I may add to the above description ; that the row of scales separating the groups of sporanges are connate on their borders in their horizontal direction from the axis to the inflexed border, even sometimes to their apex, forming a flat bottom with a vertical undulated or dentate border. Some of the specimens have had the axis destroyed by maceration so that the rows of scales, become not only free from the axis, but may be detached from each other like plates superposed in a pile.
Some more details on the characters of these fructifications are given in the description of the following species; One of them represented by fruiting spikes of both kinds, found with branches and leaves proving their specific reference, to Asterophyllites is therefore described in this genus. The others, whose specific relation is not proved, are provisionally considered under the generic names of Calamostachys and Volkmannia. Both kinds have been indifferently described by Schimper in the genus Calamostachys.
Fig. 7, is the largest I have seen of the plant. It is 8 m.m. broad, irregularly costate,like a branch of Calamites; the ribs are convex, flattish, continuous, not alternate at the articulations; the furrows are marked in the middle or in the keel by a thin line ; the articulations, slightly inflated, nearly 3 c.m. distant, bear, at the base of the costae, scars of leaves or small tubercles, as in species of Calamites, and one of them has two scars of branches 4 m.m. in diameter. The branches derived from this stem, or those of secondary order are 4 m. m. in diameter and the articulations 1-1/2 c.m. distant. The surface covered by a coaly epidermis, a bark of about one fourth of a m.m. in thickness, appears bistriate, an appearance caused by the presence of a narrow ridge in the middle of the furrows or in the intervals between the cost. The leaves of the secondary stems, like those of their sub-divisions, are extremely narrow, nearly linear or as thick at the apex as at the base, open, nearly at right angles at base, arched upward in the middle, varying from 2 to m.m. long. Of course the distance of the articulations is shorter in the last sub-divisions of the stems, the whorls of leaves in the ultimate branchlets being only 2 m.m. distant.
The spikes bearing fructifications are of two kinds. 1st, composed of round axillary sporanges as described and figured Coal Flora, Plate II, Figs. 5, 5a, and in this volume Plate XCIII, Fig. 4, and, 2nd, in verticils by 4 of small spikes composed of imbricated appressed scaliform bracts, like those of Volkmannia, described above and apparently containing sporanges with microspores. These spikes are not only found in numbers, mixed with branches and fragments of fruiting branches, as Fig. 4; but some of them still bear at their base upon the main stem, as in Fig. 5, small rows of leaves of the same size and conformation as those seen upon the sterile branches. There is therefore sufficient evidence of the identity of these spikes with the plants described as Asterophyllites gracilis. They have the same appearance and the same structure as those described by Binney under the name of Calamodendron commune, though representing a different species.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate coal measures: Arkansas, Alabama; the specimens figured Plate XCIII are from Dade, Georgia. Lacoe's collection N. 353.
CALAMOSTACHYS. Schp.Fruiting spikes of Asterophyllites composed of small globular tubercles or macrospores, borne singly, without involucre in the axils of verticillate leaves, these being of the same specific characters as those of the sterile stems and branches.
CALAMOSTACHYS LANCEOLATA, Sp. nov., Plate XCI, Fig. 1, 2; Plate XCIII, Fig. 1.Primary stem narrow, thinly, regularly striate, distinctly articulate; fructifications in small round axillary naked sporanges, or macrospores in verticils of leaves around the articulations, forming long narrow cylindrical spikes; leaves twice as long as the verticils, linear-lanceolate.
Volkmannia elongata, Roehl, Foss. Fl. Westph. p. 19, Pl. VII, Fig. 1.
These fruiting branches, compared to that figured by Roehl do not show any difference in their characters, except in the contraction of the branches and the more distant articulations of the European plant. The sporanges, also, are less distinctly or not at all marked and the leaves appear slightly broader, at least in comparison with those figured, Plate XCI. These differences are not of great importance and may result from the degree of decomposition and the flattening by compression of the vegetable fragments. We see about the same kind and degree of disparity between the two American specimens which, though procured from different localities, come from the same stage of the sub-conglomerate coal measures. In these, the length and width of the spikes differ somewhat, and in one of the specimens, the spores, in the axils of the leaves, are less distinct. The leaves, however, are of the same length, 4 m.m. in both specimens but they are lanceolate in one, narrower and appearing filiform in the other, Plate XCI. As this last has the sporanges apparently in a more advanced stage of ripeness, the bracts are probably contracted by age or dryness and their form is also somewhat obscured by the dark compound of the shale. On the American specimens, the length of the internodes of the stem varies from 1-1/2 to 3 c.m., it is nearly double upon that of Europe though the stem is rather narrower.
This Calamostachys probably represents fruiting branches of Asterophyllites longifolius. For the shale bearing the branch figured Plate XCI, Fig. 1, has also a fragment of a stem, same plate, Fig. 2, which I consider referable to Asterophyllites longifolius. The stem is thinly striate, neither contracted nor inflated at the articulations; the leaves in close verticils are narrow, linear, 2-4 c. m. long, generally lineate lengthwise by erosion of the epidermis, the medial nerve being scarcely discernible.
Schimper's reference of the specimen described and figured by Roehl as Volkmannia elongata l.c. to his Calamostachys typica "Pal. Veget.," p. 328, P. XXIII, is apparently a mistake, as from his figure, Calamostachys typica evidently represents like Calamostachys Binneyana spikes bearing sporanges, while Roehl figures a true Calamostachys or a spike bearing macrospores in the axils of the leaves.
Habitat—The specimen Plate XCI, Fig. 1, is from Arkansas, the other from Dade county, Georgia, both from sub-conglomerate coal. Lacoe's collection, Nos. 558a and 558b.
CALAMOSTACHYS OVALIS, Lesqx., Plate LXXXIX, Figs: 3, 4.Primary stems thicker than in the last species deeply irregularly costate; articulations at equal distances; fruiting branches thick and long, in verticils around the articulations ; bracts much longer than the internodes, narrowly lanceolate, incurved, sporanges small oval or globose axillary.
Asterophyllites ovalis, Lesqx., "Geol. of Penna." 1858, p. 851, Plate I, Fig. 2.
This species is much like the former though specifically different. The specimen Fig. 4 is sterile, or its sporanges have been deteriorated and fallen off. The branches are comparatively thick, 5 m.m. in diameter; the articulations at the same distance, and the leaves, a little more than 1 c.m. long, strongly nerved, are of the same character as those of Asterophyllites equisetiformis, Schloth. The articulations of the main stem, like those the branches Fig. 4, are distinctly marked by small round scars which may be the basilar impressions of detached leaves or more probably of both leaves and sporanges.
The other specimen, Fig. 3, merely differs from that of Fig. 4, by the main stem narrower, the branches longer and narrow, the sporanges present and distinct in the axils of the leaves which are slightly shorter. The difference in size merely results from the position of the fragments, either in the upper, or in the lower part of the stems. It agrees with the gradual upward decreasing of the thickness of the stems and branches, as seen upon a large specimen of Asterophyllites equisetiformis, mentioned Coal Flora, p. 35, which, 88 c.m. long, has the main stem 1-1/2 c.m. broad at base and only 2 m.m. near the broken apex. In the fruiting as in the sterile branches of Asterophyllites equisetiformis, the articulations of the main stems are not inflated, but the costae are slightly so, just above and below the points of insertions of the leaves. The remark upon the fructifications of Asterophyllites equisetiformis Coal Flora, p. 36, confirms the reference of these fructified branches to that species.
Habitat—Dade, Georgia, Fig. 3, No. 852a; Fig. 4, No. 852b of Lacoe's collection.
Branches thick; articulations obscurely marked by the bracts which are short, slightly tonger than the internodes, thick, rigid, lancelote, acuminale; macrospores axillary, very small.
The figure of this fragment is not quite complete. The space between the articulations, 4 m.m., the comparatively broad and short leaves, 6 m.m. long, are all right, but, in some places, the surface of the flattened spike is covered by flakes of coaly matter containing ovules which are true macrospores, as seen by the enlarged Fig. 5a. These flakes appear composed of an agglomeration of the spores detached from the crushed part of the spike. As the specimen cannot represent a Lepidostrobus, the presence of the spores agglomerated upon its surface indicates a relation of the fructifications of the Calamarieae to those of the Lycopodoaceae, a relation already recognized as probable by Brongniart. This spike much resembles Volkmannia gracilis, St. "Fl. d. Forw." II, p. 53, Pl. XV, Fig. 3 and it might be supposed that in this, as in Volkmannia Binneyana, the spores were derived from crushed sporanges covered by the upturned base of connate bracts. The size of the spores, true macrospores, contradicts the supposition.
Habitat—Cannelton, sent by Mr. I. F. Mansfield.
VOLKMANNIA, St.The definition of this genus by Sternberg is vague and may apply to every kind of spikes formed by crowded verticillate imbricate leaves. Of the four species which he describes, Volkmannia disticha and Volkmannia arborescens may be merely branches of Asterophyllites with crowded verticils of leaves, not organs of fructifications; while Volkmannia polystachia and Volkmannia gracilis, represent the genus as I have described it above in considering the fructification of Asterophyllites.
VOLKMANNIA CRASSA, Sp. nov., Plate XC, Fig. 1.Primary stems large, nearly smooth or irregularly obscurely lineale on the surface, indistinctly articulate; fruiting spikes verticillate by four, thick, cylindrical, narrowed to the point of attachment, truncate or obtuse at the apex , articulations of the spikes close, indistinct, covered by erect crowded narrow lanceolate leaves; thosc of the stem surrounded by longer incurved broader leaves.
The main stem, 12 m.m. at base, has its articulations 3-1/2 c.m. distant, scarcely marked, and that only by the scars of fruiting branches, and of a few leaves which are seen attached on the borders of the stem; the bark is very slightly and irregularly striate lengthwise; the spikes, somewhat oblique, 12 m.m. in diameter, 9 to 10 c.m. long, with articulations 5 m.m. distant, are covered with linear narrow leaves or bracts 1 c.m. long, erect and crowded, laying upon the spikes and obliterating the articulations. By the form of the leaves or bracts, the fruiting branches are related to Asterophyllites equisetiformis. The stem nearly smooth and the narrow leaves are against their reference to this species. The leaves also, attached at the base of the spikes to the articulations, are longer and apparently narrower; hence this Volkmannia more probably represents the spikes bearing microspores of Asterophyllites longifolius. There is, however, in the upper part of the specimen, alongside of the stem, but not connected with it, two long, comparatively broad leaves, lanceolate-acuminata, 4 c.m. long, 3 m.m. broad in the middle, deeply nerved, which might be related to the spike. As no leaves of Asterophyllites are comparable to them, that relation is very uncertain.
Habitat—The specimens have been found in the same coal mine of Dade county, Georgia, with the fragment Plate XCI, Fig. 2. No. 851, of Lacoe's collection.
VOLKMANNIA PRAELONGA, Lesqx., Plate XC, Fig. 2.These spikes described first as Calamostachys, loc. cit., are evidently referable to Volkmannia and very distinct from all the species known of this genus. No other specimen has been obtained and nothing can be added to the description l.c.
Calamostachys praelongus, Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 59.
VOLKMANNIA FERTILIS, Sp. nov., Plate XC, Fig. 4.A fragment of a cylindrical spike 10 c.m. long 2-1/2 c.m. broad, composed of a series of verticillate bracts attached to the axis, horizontally directed to the outside, abruptly curved upward on the borders, contiguous in their length, enclosing, in the space between the verticils, oblong sporanges, either attached to the articulations or to the axis in the space between them, and apparently filled with microspores.
The spike has been partly broken and shows the inner texture of a Volkmannia as described by Binney for Calamodendron commune. The form of the sporange is not distinct, varied as it is by compression and the irregular fracture of the specimen. But the small bladder-like capsules are clearly seen to be sporanges containing micro-spores; at least the fracture of one of the sporanges shows the inner part filled by minute round bodies like spores. The cohesion of the borders cannot be observed upon the specimen figured, but as said above, it is distinctly seen upon other specimens which, detached from the axis by maceration, leave the verticils disjoined and separated from each other like small plates. The space between the plates of these specimens is empty or without sporanges. The upper border of the bracts is obtusely cut as in the preceding species, as seen on the upper and lower part of the specimen figured.
Ilabitat—The last specimen is from Archbald Pennsylvania, roof of Coal B, the others without sporanges and with separating plates were found in Stark county, Illinois. All are in the cabinet of Mr. R. D. Lacoe.
Plate XC, Fig. 3, is in its whole state of preservation and shows remarkably well the outside disposition of the scales and the gradual tapering to the base. It seems to have been sessile and attached by a somewhat large base. The other Plate XCI, Fig. 3, has the upper borders of the bracts mostly destroyed, is rounded at base in narrowing to a somewhat long curved pedicel, thus showing a different mode of attachment. Plate III, Fig. 20, of the Coal Flora, which is really a Macrostachya, partly shows the inner structure in conformity with that of Volkmannia. This is evident, not only from the description of Binney, but from the comparison of the fragment Plate XC, Fig. 4, with that of Plate III, Fig. 20. From this and considering the two kinds of branch-scars which are marked upon Plate III, Fig. 14, it might be supposed that Macrostachya stems bear two kinds of fruiting spikes; some larger, attached to the broad scars by their large base; some smaller, depending from the small scars by a pedicellate base. The analogy of internal structure of the cones also proves that the spikes of Macrostachya like those of Volkmannia are fruiting organs of Calamites or of Asterophylytes, as already remarked by d'Ettingshausen.
MACROSTACHYA LANCEOLATA, Lesqx.In "Geology of Pennsylvania," 1858, p. 852, I have described as Asterophyllites lanceolatus a spike which I compared to Volkmannia major, Germ. composed of leaves or bracts united half their length and gradually narrowed or lanceolate in the upper part. These spikes are rare; I have seen only fragments of them. They differ from those of Macrostachya infundibuliformis as figured Plate XC, Fig. 3, in their cylindrical and narrower shape, but are quite as long or perhaps longer. The bracts are narrow, linear, lanceolate above, closely imbricating, so that the articulations are obliterated and somewhat indistinct. The best specimen I have seen is a fragment 10 c.m. long, scarcely 1-1/2 c.m. broad, though flattened, obtained at the railroad cut near the brewery above West Pittston. Its generic relation is as yet unknown. It resembles indeed Volkmannia major as figured by Germ. "Verst." Pl. XXXII, Fig. 5. But the leaves or bracts are narrower, quite close to each other and closely imbricate. Schimper remarks on these cones, that they resemble long cylindrical strobiles of Lepidodendron, but are regularly articulate with shorter and narrower bracts than those of Lepidostrobus. He adds that they are gigantic spikes which appear to have originated upon trunks.
ANNULARIA, Brgt. Prodr.In the description of the genus Annularia, I have remarked on the fructifications, that they are in long cylindrical spikes, with close articulations and narrowly lanceolate bracts, bearing round sporanges in the axils of the leaves or double oval ones, pedicellate, attached to the middle of the internodes. Of this last kind I have seen no specimen in the American Coal Measures. They belong to Annularia sphenophylloides, as seen from the beautiful illustrations given by Stertzel of that species.*
Coal Flora, p. 44.
Those represented by American specimens are in concordance with the descriptions and figures given by Geinitz of spikes of Annularia longifolia "Verst." Pl. XVIII, Figs. 8, 9.
ANNULARIA TUBERCULATA, Plate LXXXIX, Figs. 1, 2.Stems large calamitoid; branches bearing fruit, narrow, distantly articulate under the splices; spikes cylindrical, comparatively very long, composed of close verticils of large globose sporanges placed in the axils of short bracts which, curved first downward at base and then upward from above the base, generally cover them entirely; bracts narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, nerved.
Asterophyllites tuberculatus, Brgt. Prodr.; Lindl. & Hutt., "Fossil Fl." I, Pl. XIV.
The stem Fig. 2 found upon the same slate as Fig. 1 has the same characters and is most probably of the same species. Both stems are distinctly costate, the first, 12 m.m. in diameter, has the articulations 9 c.m. distant, the small less than 5 m.m. in diameter, has the lowest articulations at 3-1/2 c.m. from the base, the others being gradually shorter until they join the spike where they are about 5 m.m. distant, like the verticils of bracts bearing fruits. The figured specimen does not show the position of the sporanges relatively to the stem and the bracts. That is seen upon a much longer spike preserved nearly entire 20 c.m., long, including the pedicel 9 c.m., of which the axis is exposed in its whole length, the upper part being destroyed by maceration or by the breaking of the slate. The articulations are marked by a slightly elevated narrow ridge upon which are seen scars of leaves on slightly elevated points, and just above, there are small round alveoles with a central point of attachment of the sporanges, which correspond or are in line with the costae of the internodes. The tubercles or sporanges are globose or broadly ovate, 3 m.m. long, 2 m.m. broad. The leaves, attached near the base of the sporanges, are first forced downwards under them, and then curving up from below the middle, they cover them and are appressed against them, sometimes, as I have seen it in some specimens, marking the surface by deep transverse obtuse ridges. The internodes have no trace of scars in the middle or between the articulations. The spikes figured by Lindley and Hutton "Foss. Fl.," Pl. XIV, Figs. 1 and 2, are not in as good a state of preservation as those of the American specimens; they are only fragments of the fructified part without pedicel; but it is scarcely possible to doubt that they represent the same kind of organism, even that they belong to the same species. In the specimen Fig. 1 of our plate, the pedicel, evidently calamitoid and probably a branch of the larger stem, Fig. 2, indicates a reference of the fructifications to some kind of Calamites. Both these branches, the larger one especially, with distant articulations, appear like branches of Calamites ramifer, or of the species which I have described under that name and which has been found in fragments of stems, branches and leaves, in the sub-conglomerate measures of Pittston. Though it may be, the other specimens found with this, have, as described above, the characters of fructifications of Annularia and the identity of all these fragments is certain.
Habitat—Railroad cut near brewery above West Pittston, at or near the base of the conglomerate. No. 914 of Lacoe's collection.
ANNULARIA SPHENOPHYLLOIDES, VAR INTERMEDIA, Lesqx.Branches much and horizontally divided; whorls of leaves measuring taterally or on the broadest side from 8 to 30 m.m. composed of 14 to 32 oblanceolate obtuse more or less inflated leaflets; medial nerves obscure.
It is scarcely possible to say if the specimens are referable to a small form of Annularia longifolia or to a large variety of Annularia sphenophylloides. The leaflets are narrow comparatively to their length, gradually and regularly enlarging to the apex which is generally half round, very rarely marked with a minute point. As the leaflets are inflated, the medial nerve is merely marked by a dark-colored line often indistinguishable. In the largest form of Annularia sphenophylloides, the length of the leaflets is 10 to 12 m.m.; in this variety they vary from 4 to 15 m.m., all inflated, especially toward the apex. As seen from the concave impression of the leaflets, their transverse section would be oval, much like that of Annularia inflata, Lesqx.
Habitat—Lawrence, Kansas; Lacoe's cabinet.
ANNULARIA CUSPIDATA, Sp. nov., Plate XCII, Figs. 7, 7a.Whorls small, of 9 oblong abruptly acuminate or cuspidate small leaves, shorter than the internodes; costa thick, terete, hard, excurrent.
A mere branchlet with 8 verticils of leaflets. The verticils are close, the leaves nearly as long as the internodes, open, at right angles to the stem which is strong, thick and evidently solid; as it is preserved in its cylindrical shape. The verticils are gradually shorter upward, the upper one with leaves 2 m.m. long, the lower ones 3 m.m., about all of the same length in the same verticil, oval-oblong, rapidly narrowed and acuminate by a very thick excurring prominent medial nerve. The shape of the leaves is somewhat like that of Annularia Dawsoni, Schp., comparatively broader and shorter, differing essentially by the acuminate apex and the strong nerve. A comparison with the original specimens obtained from Prof. Dawson shows the species to be entirely different.
Habitat--Rushville, Ohio, sub-carboniferous No. 788. Lacoe's collection.
ANNULARIA MINUTA, Brgt., Plate XCII, Figs. 8, 8a.Plants very small with a main stem comparatively thick, not quite 1 m.m. obscurely striate; branches at right angles; verticils close; leaves in whorls of 8 to 12, spatulate, obtuse or obtusely pointed, 1-1/2 to 2 m. long, 3/4 of a m.m. broad in the upper part toward the apex; the medial nerve totally obsolete.
This species is comparable to Annularia Emersoni, from which it differs by the small size of all its parts, the leaves of a different shape comparatively much broader not acuminate but rather obtuse. It may be Annularia minuta ? Brgt. as described and figured by Wood.* At least the verticils of leaves are of the same size and form, though
Habitat — Monongalia county, West Virginia. Lacoe's cabinet, No. 210.
SPHENOPHYLLUM, Brgt.I have figured, as quoted above, a fine specimen which represents the var. latifolium of this species. The variety as well as the normal form are very rare in the American carboniferous.
Coal Flora, p. 51.
SPHENOPHYLLUM LONGIFOLIUM, Germ., Plate XCI, Fig. 6.
Coal Flora, p. 53.
Habitat—The specimen is from the sub-conglomerate measures of Arkansas, communicated by F. L. Harvey of Fayetteville.
Leaves in verticils of six to nine; leaflets long, gradually narrowed and cuneiform to the base, sharply, more or less deeply dentate at the apex; primary veins about four, some of them forking above, each division entering one of the teeth.
Of this species which is said to be very common in Europe, I have seen only the fragments figured, which, like the preceding, have been sent from Arkansas by F. L. Harvey. Schimper considers this species a variety of Sphenophyllum erosum, Ll. and Hutt., as described in Coal Flora, p. 55. The difference which seems persistent is essentially marked in the primary nerves not confluent at base.
SPHENOPHYLLUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM, Germ, Plate XCIII, Fig. 8.Leaves narrow and narrowly cuneate to the base, generally in verticils of four or six, deeply dentate at the apex or split once or twice to above the middle; nerves 2-4 at the base, not connivent, either simple or forking once and generally 4-8 at the apex of the dentate leaflets, only 2-4 and entering the teeth of the narrower ones, which are split once; fruiting spikes long, cylindrical, narrow, terminal on slender branches, or shorter and axillary.
Sphenophyllum densifoliatum and Sphenophyllum tennifolium, Font and White, Upper Carb. Fl. pp. 37, 38, Pl. I, Figs. 7, 9.
The fructified branch figured has a narrow rachis and the articulations scarcely marked. The stem and branches are broader, 2-3 m.m., distinctly deeply striate, with, close inflated acutely ridged articulations, 8-12 m.m. distant. The leaves are described by European authors as being verticillate by 6. Though the specimens I have for examination are finely preserved, I cannot see any more than 4 leaves in each whorl. The substance of the leaves is thick or subcoriaceous. The epidermis smooth and thick obliterates the nervation which is rarely distinctly seen.
Schimper describes the fruiting spikes as lateral, pinnately disposed, and remarks in a note, "Pal. Veget.," p. 343, that the spikes are narrower than in Sphenophyllum saxifragaefolium, but that they are not terminal as Germar describes them. In proof of this he says he has received from Germar himself a very fine specimen with leaves exactly as in the typical form, but with spikes axillary, longer and especially narrower than those figured by Germar and with much smaller sporanges, and he refers them as identical to the one figured by Germar in "Verst.," Pl. VII, Fig. 5. Now in that Fig. 5, the spikes are not only much smaller, but also much shorter, and the sporanges appear as round tubercles, like the macrospores of Calamostachys. They are also figured in that way by Weiss, "Fl. des jung. Ltk. u. d. Rothl.," Pl. XVIII, Fig. 33. As from our fig. Plate XCII, Fig. 8, the large spikes are positively terminal, as they are also figured by Germar, the small spikes which are lateral and sessile may represent axillary fructifications with macrospores, as in Calamites gracilis, while the large ones, which are terminal, possibly bear, like those of Volkmannia, microspores enclosed in verticils of larger sporanges. It cannot be supposed that both Schimper and Germar have examined and described specimens of two different kinds of Sphenophyllum; for Schimper remarks, as seen above, that those communicated to him by Germar have the leaves of exactly the typical characters.
Habitat—The species is more generally found in the upper strata of the coal measures. The fine specimen figured is from Pomroy Coal, at the horizon of the Pittsburgh Coal. Another, sterile, is from Monongalia Co., W. Virginia, 400 feet above the Waynesburg coal. Lacoe's cabinet No. 768. Upper Coal Measures, Font and White.
Stem slender, foliate and ramose; articulations generally prominent; internodes short, somewhat narrowed and costate in the middle; scars of leaves punctiform, placed upon the articulations; leaves verticillate, rarely simple, generally in whorls of 12, forking, sometimes dichotomously divided in three to six laciniae; verticils of leaves attached to a diaphragm of the stem which is deciduous with the leaves; fructifications at the apex of the branches, spiciform, covering numerous foliate internodes, sporangifer; sporanges compressed pyriform in outline, sessile, in verticils, alternating with the leaves, the sporangifer placed above the verticils of leaves and filling an internode.
The above description with scarcely any modification is that of Stur. It applies exactly to what is represented by our specimens, except for the fructifications which I have not seen and for the mode of attachment of the leaves. The author says that the leaves are attached to a diaphragm of the stem, while our specimen shows the leaves connate at base all around the stem, the short connate part forming a kind of narrow ring, at right angles to the stem. That may be a diaphragm of the stem; but when a number of leaves are detached from the articulations, they remain connate at base, the connate part being about 1 m.m. in width. In the lower part of the branches or stems, the leaves are all divided into laciniae and not connate at base, but in the upper part, they are all simple, erect and somewhat incurved, very narrow, filiform, 1/4 or 1/3 of a m.m. in diameter, 5-6 m. in. long or twice as long as the internodes. In the lower part of the stems, however, they are at right angles, looking like bundles of radicles, always forking or dichotomously cut into laciniae, sometimes from the base, sometimes from the middle and above.
Habitat—The specimens are small fragments of branches or stems scarcely 4 c.m. long. They were procured from the black very bituminous shale of Rushville, Ohio, of the Waverly formation, referable to the lower sub-carboniferous measures. They were collected by Leo Lesquereux, Jr., and are preserved in the cabinet of Mr. Lacoe, No. 310. It is from this deposit that Prof. Andrews has obtained all the specimens which he described in vol. 2 of the Geol. State Survey of Ohio. He has given in Geol. Report of Ohio, II, p. 424, Pl. LIII, Figs. 1, 2, a good representation of two fragments of stems with dichotomously divided leaves, considering them as roots. They are evidently referable to the species described above.
The half of a sheath of Equisetites, attached to a costate calamitoid stem by a crenulate narrow border; segments connate at base for one third of their length, then free, long, nearly linear, slightly recurred above, acuminate, marked lengthwise by a nerve or line distinct to the point of cohesion of the segments.
The border base glued to the stem is 2 m.m. broad only, equally crenulate at the lower border or cut in half round short lobes, each corresponding with the base of the laciniae and separated from them by a deep horizontal depression. The sheath, formed by a smooth membrane connecting the segments and bordered by concave sinuses between them, is 1 c.m. broad, and the segments, 33 m.m. long, including the sheath which they cover, are nearly linear, measuring 2 m.m. at base and 1 m. m. at the point where they become free from the sheath. They are then very gradually narrowed upward to the acuminate apex. It is not possible to see what diametral part of the sheath is represented by the fragment. It seems to be about one half, and as eleven of the segments are preserved, their number upon a whole sheath may have been 20 to 24.
The sheath is upon a piece of shale covered with stems and leaves of Asterophyllites gracilis. No stems of this species have been found large enough to authorize the supposition that the fragment of sheath could be referable to it. Its name merely relates to the character of the segments.
Habitat—Dade county, Georgia. Lacoe's cabinet, No. 938.
TROCHOPHYLLUM, Lesqx.A large number of specimens referable to this species have been obtained since it was first described. The branches bear either flattened leaves or inflated hollow quadrangular organisms, which appear to be sporanges filled with large macrospores. They are described with the Lycopodiaceae.
Coal Flora, p. 63.
TROCHOPHYLLUM LINEARE, Lesqx., ibid. p. 64, Plate III, Figs. 24-25b.
FILICACEAE.It is well known that the remains of fossil plants, especially those of the ferns of the carboniferous are always more or less fragmentary and merely represent fractions which rarely give a good idea of the real characters of the vegetable in its whole. For this reason the identification and also the descriptions of the fossil fragments of ferns are generally very difficult. For the same reason, also, it is always of advantage to have for study a number of specimens of the same species and to represent by figures the parts of the plants, which, different in some degree, may contribute to satisfy the mind about their general. characters. That will explain why I have figured again in this volume leaves or fragments of ferns previously figured and described in the Coal Flora. The number is not great and certainly, better representations of species not yet sufficiently known, are often more valuable to science than the descriptions of new ones.
In the four plates prepared by drawings of specimens of Neuropterideae: Neuropteris decipiens, Neuropteris Smithii, Neuropteris Elrodi, Neuropteris aspera, with and Odontopteris deformata and Odontopteris aequalis, are already partly known. The first had not been figured; all the others, four species of Neuropteris, four of Odontopteris, one Megalopteris and one Taeniopteris are new. Of the Odontopteris, one species was already known in Europe but not yet found on the American continent.
Pinnules of various sizes and forms according to their position and the size of the pinnae. 1st. Small; as small as those ofNeuropteris tenuifolia , ovate-oblong, obtuse, cordiform and enlarged on the lower side at base, but not auricled, inclining upward, close and contiguous on the borders, Fig. 7. 2d. Larger, or of medium size, also cordate and slightly unequal at base, deltoid in outline, blunt at the apex, Fig. 6. 3d. Cyclopterid large leaflets, broadly oblong or obovate, rounded at the apex, undulate on the borders, Figs. 4 and 5. Nervation, flabellate, dichotomous from the base, very distinct, sharply marked; nerves very distant, oblique or erect and parallel at, and toward the base, gradually curving, becoming less distant in ascending, and reaching the borders nearly at right angles, being there very close and often flexuous and reticulate as in species of Dictyopteris.
This fern is very fine; the leaflets are thick or subcoriaceous; the veins become gradually thicker and more distant toward the base. In the small pinn, the leaflets are 1/2 c.m. long, 6 to 7 m.m. broad toward the base. In those of medium size, the pinnules more than 4 c.m. long are 2-1/2 c.m. broad near the base. Of the cyclopterid leaflets 7 to 7-1/2 c.m. long, one is oval-oblong or slightly obovate, 2-1/2 c.m. broad at the base, 4-1/2 c.m. in the upper part, while, the other, part of which is destroyed, is much enlarged at the top, gradually narrowed and cuneiform to the base.
Roehl, in "Foss. Flora," p. 43, Pl. XXI, Fig. 3, has represented under the name of Cyclopteris orbicularis, Brgt., a fragment of leaf which, for its form and the disposition of the nerves is very similar to that of the cyclopterid leaflets of this species. The leaf is large, orbicular; the borders are undulate; the nerves, very oblique at base or nearly at right angles near the borders, become there very close, though not flexuous or reticulate in undulations. It may be the same species as that described above, but it is certainly not Cyclopteris orbicularis of Brongniart, a species whose large leaflets are entire, not undulate at the borders, the nerves very distant, but proportionally equally so in their whole length, being at the borders 1-1/2 to 2 m.m. distant, while in the American species they are less than the third of 1 m.m. or 36 per c.m. of space. On the figure in Roehl. the veins are exactly one third of 1 m.m. distant. The same author considers Cyclopteris Germari St. and Filicites conchaceus, Germ. & Kaulf., as synonyms of his species. If we are not mistaken in the reference of the American specimens to European species, the two named forms represent the first, Neuropteris Germari, very different from Cyclopteris orbicularis, the second, Neuropteris inflata both distinct from Neuropteris Carrii.
Habitat—Kingston, Luzerne co., Penna., middle group of coal seams, and Mazon Creek, Ills., N. 434 in Lacoe's collection.
The species has no marked affinity to any other of the genus. By its nervation only it is comparable to Neuropteris Rogersi, Lesqx., except that the leaflets of this last species have no medial nerve. The leaves vary from 6-1/2 to 10 c.m. long and from 1 to 2 c. m. broad near their base. The lateral veins having about the same degree of divergence at their base as in their upper part near the borders, are there 14 to 16 in the space of 1 c.m.
Habitat—Cannelton, Penna., very rare. The specimens in Lacoe's collection bear No. 951.
Neuropteris hirsuta, Neuropteris angustifolia, etc. The fine specimen Fig. 1 is the first I have seen with pinnae and pinnules attached to the rachis, these being generally found isolated. They are always larger, in comparison, than those of Neuropteris hirsuta. I stated in the description, l.c., that counted upon the borders, the nerves in Neuropteris decipiens are 28 per c.m. I should have said 25 to 28, while in Neuropteris hirsuta they count 40 to 50 per c.m. The two specimens figured show the great variability in form and size of the pinnae and pinnules. As in Neuropteris hirsuta, the leaves, though generally hirsute, are sometimes without hairs.
Habitat—The habitat is exceptional. The species abounds at Mazon Creek, but as yet I have seen one specimen only from a different locality—the shaft at Centralia, Ills.
Neuropteris hirsuta. In the form and areolation, the leaves have the same character as those of Neuropteris angustifolia; they are oblong or linear-lanceolate, comparatively narrow, with a broad deep percurrent medial nerve; the lateral nerves are oblique, somewhat thick, 35 to 40 per c.m. counted along the border, or less than in Neuropteris hirsuta and more than in Neuropteris decipiens. With the narrow leaflets, the specimens from Osage City have two round cyclopterid ones deeply auriculate at base, 5-1/2 c.m. in transverse diameter, 4-1/2 vertically or from the upper border to the base of the auricles, which descend 2 c.m. lower than the point of attachment. Their surface appears covered with thin hairs, but as the specimens are varnished, the hairs could not be distinctly seen. It is however most probable that these cyclopterid leaves belong to the same species. But other kinds of Neuropteris have been found at the same locality.
Neuropteris, like Neuropteris tenuifolia, Neuropteris Desorii, even, though less evident, in Neuropteris Loschii, whose leaflets are generally larger.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate coal measures, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Virginia. I have not seen it yet from Arkansas where Neuropteris tenuifolia, the nearest relative to the species is present. The specimen figured is No. 543 of Mr. Lacoe's cabinet.
Neuropteris Smithii is also found, it is evident that these two species are distinct though related in some points. In comparing the figures of Plate XCVI, the points of difference are easily remarked. In Neuropteris Elrodi, the ultimate pinnae are long, somewhat flexuous, attached to a comparatively narrow rachis; the pinnules are lanceolate, obtusely pointed, more than twice as long, though not broader; the ultimate pinnule, especially, is totally different, much longer than the lateral ones, narrowly lanceolate, acuminate and blunt at the apex. The nervation is clear, distinct, of the same character as that of Neuropteris Smithii. But in some specimens it is rendered obsolete by a thick epidermis which is somewhat rough or villous, appearing as covered with soft thin hairs. The main radius is smooth not striate.
I have remarked in the description, that the species is closely related to Neuropteris Dluhoschi Stur. I now believe that the species are identical. Considering the form of the leaflets, their thick substance, the narrow rachis and the nervation, it is also probable that the fragments described and figured Coal Flora, p. 121, Plate XIII, Fig. 7, as Neuropteris biformis, represent a large form of the same species. The base of the terminal pinnule preserved upon the specimen seems to indicate by its mode of attachment an elongated lanceolate shape, like that of the terminal leaflets of Fig. 1. If this character was ascertained, identification would be positive.
Habitat—Dade, Georgia, and also Tennesee, with the preceding. The specimens figured are in Mr. Lacoe's cabinet, No. 865.
p. 122 of the Coal Flora upon two specimens whose leaflets had the surface hairy, are not to be considered in relation with this plant. They represent a part of a pinna with very oblique pinnules and a terminal leaflet remarkable for its length, enlarged and obtusely lobate on one side in the middle, gradually acuminate to the apex. All the lateral leaflets are very unequal at the base, prolonged at the lower side into a rounded auricle and obliquely truncate or rounded at the upper. The medial nerve is thick up to the middle, narrower and somewhat obscure from the middle upward, divided at the top, at least in some of the leaves, into separate nervilles which fringe the apex like bristles. The lateral veins, very close and at the same time prominent, give to the surface of the leaflets a peculiarly rough appearance by which even the smallest fragments can be identified.
Habitat—Very rare. First obtained at Murphys Borough, Ill., later at Cannelton and still later at the Campbell's Ledge of Pittston, Pa. No. 935 in Lacoe's collection.
NEUROPTERIS BLISSII, Sp. nov., Plate XCV, Figs. 1, 1a.Pinnae linear-oblong, simply pinnate; secondary pinnae or pinnules open, nearly at right angles, parallel, alternate, distant, not contiguous on the borders, oblong-linear, narrowed into an obtuse apex, symmetrical and rounded at the scarcely cordate base; medial nerve, thin, effaced near the apex; lateral veins dichotomous, arched, all derived from the medial nerve, distinct, somewhat distant; rachis narrow.
The pinnules average 5 to 6 c.m. in length, the upper gradually shorter, 10 to 15 m.m. in width, being a little more enlarged at the rounded base, attached to the rachis by the base of the medial nerve and more or less undulate on the borders.
The species is related to Neuropteris Volzii, Brgt., "Veget. Foss." p. 232, Pl. LXVII, a species of the Trias of France, which has, however, a much stronger round rachis, the pinnules more narrow, deeply cordate and auriculate at base, attached to the rachis, says the author, by the medial nerve and the upper side of the base, the lateral nerves being thinner and closer. By the form and size of the pinnules, this new species has also a degree of likeness to Neuropteris angustifolia, Brgt., differing by the pinnules less enlarged toward the base, linear, all equal, nearly at right angles to the rachis and the lateral veins more distant, generally forking twice.
Habitat—Mazon Creek. Communicated by Mr. Frank T. Bliss.
NEUROPTERIS GRIFFITHII, Sp. nov., Plate XCV, Figs. 3-8.Separate pinnules of various sizes and forms, generally small, unequally, deeply cordate and auricled at base, either longer, narrowly lanceolate, blunt at the apex, or shorter and broader, oblong, obtuse, or still more enlarged, nearly round or renform, even narrowed and wedgeform at base, entire or sometimes divided into irregular obtuse lobes; nerves dichotomous, flabellate from the base or derived from a thick percurrent medial nerve, slightly arched, close and distinct.
The pinnules have all been found separated from the rachis. They are all comparatively small, 3 to 5 c.m. in length, 1 to 2 c.m. in width near the base, deeply unequilateral at the auricled base, one of the auricles being prolonged downward and covering or surrounding the point of attachment as in Figs. 6-8, or merely cordate at base, apparently reniform and cyclopterid, as in Fig. 5. In Fig. 3, the leaflet enlarged around a broad base is divided into irregular lobes, like the leaves of Odontopteris monstruosa, described below, and in Fig. 4, the pinnule is enlarged upward from a cuneate base.
This last leaflet bears near the borders small tubercles or sori (?) placed in a regular row parallel to the borders, each upon a branch of the nerves. They are very small, not more than half 1 m.m. long and half as broad, apparently convex, as seen Fig. 4a enlarged and of the same nature as those which have been observed upon leaflets of Neuropteris Clarksoni, as mentioned Coal Flora, p. 95, and already figured "Geol. of Penna." 1858, Plate V [probably Plate VI - GL,III, ed.], Fig. 3. By their size, their form and the regularity of their position, these tubercles resemble the sori discovered on the borders of leaflets of Odontopteris sorifera Grand'Eury, mentioned Coal Flora, p. 124, which are evidently organs of fructifications. As the tubercles formerly observed upon leaves of Neuropteris, are more or less irregularly placed in relation to each others and also to the veins, generally near the medial nerve, rather between than upon the veins, their nature was less distinctly indicated than it is upon that leaflet. I have, however, not been able to see the granulations of surface figured by Grand'Eury, marking the place and the disposition of the sporanges in parallel rows.
Habitat—Port Griffith, E vein, near Pittston, Pa. No. 417 Lacoe's collection. Plate XCVII of this volume six different species, two of which, Odontopteris monstruosa and Odontopteris patens are new; another, Odontopteris neuropteroides Roem., is new for America, but was already known in Europe; a fourth, Odontopteris affinis, formerly mentioned without name Coal Flora, p. 135, was neither figured nor described; a fifth, Odontopteris deformata, already described had not been figured in the Coal Flora, and the sixth, a small pinna of Odontopteris aequalis, Coal Flora, p. 135, represents the species in a different form, if not with a diferent character.
In the description of the genus l.c., considering the great affinity of its species to those of Neuropteris, I have remarked, p. 124, that as far as observed until now, the more marked difference between these genera was the absence of large cyclopterid leaflets in species of Odontopteris, while pinnules of that kind are generally found in connection with pinnae or fragments of Neuropteris. That assertion seems contradicted by the shape and size of the leaves of one of the new species above mentioned, Odontopteris monstruosa. As seen Plate XCVII, Figs. 1, 2, that species is represented upon two of the specimens by very large lateral pinnules, oblong or nearly round, with distant flabellate dichotomous nerves, resembling indeed the cyclopterid leaflets of some Neuropteris. The likeness is however fictitious, for the conformation of the two kinds of pinnules is very different. Those of Odontopteris, in the figures quoted above, are lateral, attached to the radius by the whole length of a long base. They are evidently formed by cohesion of the borders of a number of lateral leaflets, from which is produced a compound lamina. The different parts, if not distinct, are indicated by the indentation of the borders or by lobes. That is clearly seen on the right side of Fig. 2 and more distinctly on the left of Fig. 1, these being partly connate. The true cyclopterid leaves of Neuropteris are formed by the normal expansion of the blade or leaf around a central point, the base of a rachis, which they surround. It is a natural unfolding of the lamina, resulting from the position of the organ, not a deformation like those observed and so very much varied in many species of Odontopteris. In the small specimen of Odontopteris alpina, Coal Flora, Pl. XIX, Fig. 4, the deformation is of the same kind as in Odontopteris monstruosa.
ODONTOPTERIS NEUROPTEROIDES, Roemer, Plate XCVII, Fig. 8.Pinnae narrowly lanceolate; pinnules disjoined to the base, somewhat distant, inclined upward, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or blunt at the apex, attached to the rachis by the whole decurring base; terminal pinnule long, rhomboidal-lanceolate, btunt at the apex; medial nerve scarcety distinct; the lateral very oblique, nearly straight in passing to the borders.
Roemer, "Beitr. in Paleontogr," IX, p. 187, Pl. XXX, Figs. 2a, 2b.
The figure of Roemer represents a pinna with pinnules broadly rounded at the apex and a medial nerve very distinct. The description says, however, that they are blunt at the apex (stumpf) and that the medial nerve is not or scarcely marked (undeutlich). The description is therefore concordant with the characters of the small and only specimen we have of that species. That of the terminal pinnule is translated from the author's. The lateral pinnules are about 2 c.m. long and 5 to 7 m.m. broad in the middle. The lower lateral nerves are derived from the rachis, the others from the medial nerve, all in a very acute angle of divergence.
Habitat—Rhode Island, No. 430 in Mr. Lacoe's collection.
ODONTOPTERIS PATENS, Sp. nov., Plate XCVII, Fig. 7.Pinnae linear or narrowly lanceolate, long; pinnules nearly at right angles to the broad rachis, narrowly linear-lanceolate, enlarged and connate at base, acute or blunt at the apex, distant; medial nerve thin but distinct to near the apex; lateral veins at an acute angle of divergence, slightly curved in passing to the borders, thin, the lowest only emerging from the rachis.
This species is related to the preceding, from which it differs by the very broad rachis, 5 m.m. in diameter, slightly punctulate-rugulose, the form of the pinnules nearly at right angles, not decurring, but abruptly enlarged at the base and there connate, the form of the narrow leaflets 2 c.m. long, scarcely 5 m.m. broad in the middle, slightly enlarged below the apex and narrowed into a more acute point.
Habitat—Rhode Island. The specimen No. 890 of Lacoe's collection represents three fragments of a pinna of the species upon a large plate of shale partly covered with branches of Odontopteris Brardii.
ODONTOPERIS MONSTRUOSA, Sp. nov., Plate XCVII, Figs. 1-3.Fragments of multiform pinnae, either pinnately divided into obtuse alternate decurring large leaflets, or bearing, on one side of a narrow rachis, a row of oblong obtuse leaflets connate at base and decurring, and on the other a cyclopterid leaf merely lobate on the borders; nerves dichotomous, parallel at base, diverging and flabellate upward, slightly curved or nearly slraight, all derived from the rachis.
The figures give an exact representation of these fragments, which it is scarcely possible to clearly describe. Fig. 3 shows the upper part of a pinna with 4 pairs of alternate oval-oblong obtuse leaflets, the lower 2-1/2 c.m. long, 14 m.m. broad, narrowed and rounded above the decurring base, the upper narrower, attached to the rachis by their whole decurring base, the terminal broadly ovate. In all the lateral leaflets, the nerves are derived from the rachis, all dichotomous in ascending, slightly curved toward the borders. In Fig. 1, the flexuous rachis bears on one side 4 leaflets, connate at base, oblong, obtuse, gradually shorter upward, nerved as in Fig. 3, and on the other side, the base of a large cyclopterid leaf which seems attached to the whole length of the rachis, being probably lobate on the borders, as on the right side of Fig. 2. In this last, the rachis also flexuous, has cyclopterid leaflets on both sides, one nearly round, obtusely lobate on the borders, with two narrow obtuse leaflets above, the other entire to the truncate apex, with the base of a narrow terminal leaflet at the top of the medial nerve. The cyclopterid parts have the nerves more distant, but the character of the nervation is of the same type, as seen in Fig. 1, where both small and large leaflets are upon the same rachis. For this reason and considering the extraordinary variety of forms seen upon species of this genus, as for example upon Odontopteris heterophylla, Lesqx., Coal Flora, Plate XXII, Fig. 6, I refer all these fragments to the same species.
Habitat—Cannelton; found also in nodules at Mazon Creek, Ills., No. 756 in Lacoe's collection.
ODONTOPTERIS AFFINIS, Sp. nov., Plate XCVII, Fig. 4.Pinnar linear-lanceolate; pinnules sub-opposite, large, oblong and enlarged above, attached to the rachis by the whole base, slightly decurring, close to each other, connate at base, the lower pair at right angles, the others gradually more oblique, turned upward; nerves close, all derived from the rachis, parallel, forking once above the middle, straight, or inclined toward the borders.
The lower pinnules are 2 to 2-1/2 c.m. long, 1-1/2 c.m. broad above the middle, the upper ones, gradually shorter and narrower, are disconnected to the base, except near the apex of the pinnae, where they are connate to the middle, enlarged above, rounded at the apex, with nearly the same form as those of Odontopteris subcuneata, Coal Flora, Plate XXII, Figs. 4 and 5. They merely differ by the entire, decurring, not auricled base, the leaflets more enlarged upward, the nervation a little more distinct and distant, the nerves forking once only. I have not seen a specimen with a terminal pinnule. From the fragment left at the top of the pinna, Fig. 4, that pinnule seems to have been enlarged and short. Another specimen, not figured, has all the leaflets connate to the middle, with a facies quite different from that of Odontopteris subcuneata. Nevertheless this may be a mere variety of the same species.
Habitat—Mazon Creek. Rare.
Plate XXI, Fig. 8, merely modified by its different position upon the frond.
Habitat—Mazon Creek, in concretions.
Coal Flora does not conform with the figure of this plate, for the reason that it was made from a different specimen and that all the specimens of this species represent it in a different way. As seen on the figure, the lateral pinnae of the left side are more elongated and proportionately narrower and the lower pinnules shorter and broader, while on the other side, and by contraction, the pinnae are shorter and broader, the terminal pinnule, also, much shorter and broader, while the lower pinnules are longer and narrower.
The specimen is a remarkable exemplification of the dimorphism caused by expansion in the lateral compression of a stratum of shale, folded into short undulations along the beach near Newport, R.I., where all the plants have been more or less deformed by traction to one side or to the other according to their position in the bed.
undulate on the borders; lateral nerves at a broad angle of divergence, but not at right angles to the medial nerve, slightly arched in traversing the blade, extremely thin and close.
The reference of this fragment to Taeniopteris is not quite certain, on account of the peculiar nervation, but I do not find it related to any other genus, and it would not be proper to constitute a genus with a mere fragment like this. It has a degree of likeness, by the form and size of the pinna, to Taeniopteris coriacea, Goepp., "Perm. Fl." p. 130, Pl. VIII, Fig. 4 and IX, Fig. 2, differing especially in the narrow medial nerve, the close thin lateral veins and the leaf truncate at the base. The veins are so thin and close that they are perceived with difficulty, even with a strong lens, appearing here and there as undulate and mixed. The fragment of pinna is 4 c.m. long, 1 c.m. in diameter and broken at the apex, which was apparently obtuse.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate Campbell's Ledge, Pittston, Penna., No. 860 of Mr. Lacoe's cabinet.
Primary and secondary rachis narrow; leaflets very oblique, crowded, narrowed at the upper side toward the base, and decurring at the lower, long, linear-lanceolate; veins at a very acute angle of divergence, not more than 10°, thin and close, forking once or simple.
Of this species, there is only the small fragment figured. It shows part of three leaflets, none of them entire, about 1-1/2 c.m. broad, linear, probably narrowed above and obtuse, narrowed on the upper border which joins the medial nerve at its base, long and broadly decurring on the lower side, about in the same way as in Megalopteris Southwellii, Plate XXIV, Fig. 1. It differs greatly from this and all the other species known of this genus by the narrow leaflets and the nearly straight lateral nerves.
Habitat—The fragment was sent from Arkansas by Prof. F. L. Harvey.
CALLIPTERIDIUM, Weiss.All the specimens represented l.c. are fragments of pinnae of the third order. That of Pl. XCVIII is the upper or terminal part of a secondary pinna with short lateral pinnae, the lowest deeply pinnately lobed, the lobes gradually shorter in the upper pinnae which become simple lanceolate obtuse pinnules like the terminal one. This part shows the general character and aspect of the plant. The texture is thick and the nervation very close, obsolete, as it appears also upon most of the smaller specimens of the species, all obtained at the same locality, Cannelton, Penna.
Coal Flora, p. 164.
CALLIPTERIDIUM INAEQUALE, Lesqx., Plate XCVIII, Fig. 1.
Coal Flora, p. 168, Plate XXXIII, Fig. 2-5.
CALLIPTERIDIUM SINUATUM ? Plate XCIX, Fig. 3.Leaflet oblong-lanceolate, gradually narrowed to an obtuse apex, more prolonged on one side of the unequilaterally cordate base; surface obliquely sinuous, plaited, but not laciniate or cut through by the lateral nerves; medial nerve narrow, percurrent; the lateral thin but distant, arched toward the borders, at a broad angle of divergence from the medial nerve, forking once near the base, the upper branch forking again near the borders, which are undulate by contraction according to the undulations of the surface.
Pecopteris sinuata, Brgt., Veg. Poss., p. 296, Pl. XCIII, Fig. 3.
As I have seen only of this fern the specimen figured; its reference to Brongniart's species is uncertain. This last is represented by large parallel secondary pinnae with close linear-oblong obtuse decurring pinnules, to which the leaflet described above is comparable only by the general facies, the undulations of the surface and of the borders and the nervation. Brongniart compares his species to Pecopteris punctulata which is the polymorphous Callipteris conferta, Goepp., of which Weiss, "Foss. Fl." has described and figured six different forms as sub-species and some varieties, one of which, var. sinuata, of the sub-species progressa, p. 80, Pl. VII, Fig. 3, l.c. has for synonym Pecopteris sinuata, Brgt. Some of the terminal pinnae of that variety have a marked likeness to that of Plate XCIX, Fig. 3, but all of them, in the figures of Weiss as in those of Brongniart, are decurring at base and have the nervation differently marked.
Habitat—The specimen is in a concretion from Mazon Creek. Lacoe's, No. 493.
Primary pinnae large, with broad rachis; secondary pinnae, at right angles, parallel, rigid, distant, linear, or very gradually narrowed upward, pinnately divided; pinnules close, alternate, oblong, narrowed to an obtuse apex, connate at base one fourth of their length, also at right angles to a thick flat rachis and not decurrent; nervation coarse; medial nerve thick, effaced under the apex; lateral nerves curved in passing to the borders, forking once near the base, the upper branch forking once again near the border as in the preceding species.
CALLIPTERIDIUM RIGIDUM, Sp. nov., Plate XCIX, Figs. 1-2a.
The primary rachis is 5 m.m. in diameter; the secondary pinnae, 25 m.m. distant, are exactly at right angles, on a straight rigid flat rachis, scarcely narrowed upward, at least in the larger pinnae, which are more than 10 c.m. long.
The affinity of this fern is not distinct. It is evidently a Callipteridium, related to Callipteridium orientale, Schenk, 9th mem. on the plants of the Carb. of China., p. 227, Pl. XXX, Fig. 6-9a., which is a smaller plant with narrower pinnules, but with a nervation of the same character.
Habitat—Olyphant, Penna., Lacoe's, No. 716.
CALLIPTERIDIUM DOURNAISII ?The plant which I refer with some doubt to this species is represented by 3 small specimens, all from the same locality and mere fragments. One is that of an ultimate pinna of the middle or upper part of a frond, with lanceolate oblique undulate obtuse pinnules, 1 to 1-1/2 c.m. long, 6-7 m.m. broad; another has two linear pinnae 12 to 14 m.m. broad, obtusely, deeply and broadly lobate, and a third is the top of a pinna with a short narrow lanceolate obtuse ultimate pinnule. The specimens are too small to show by the forms of the pinnules and pinnae close relation or identity with the European species, but the nervation is of the same type. The strong medial nerve is flexuous, distinct to the apex; the lateral nerves are oblique, distant, filiform and very distinct, sometimes forking once only, more generally once near the base and one of the branches or both once again near the borders. In the narrow undulate pinna, the veins obliquely attached to the rachis are at right angles to the base, parallel, distant; those of the lower side of the medial nerve forking once only at base, those of the upper side forking twice, a nervation much like that of Odontopteris Schlotheimii, Brgt. As Brongniart says of his species that it is so closely allied to Alethopteris lonchitica, that it may perhaps be a variety of it, that described above may be a new species as the nervation is far different from that of Alethopteris lonchitica.
Pecopteris Dourndisii Brgt., "Veget. Foss." p. 282, Pl. LXXXIX.
Habitat—Campbell's ledge of Pittston, Lacoe's, No. 995. Secondary pinnae long, close, parallel; pinnules comparatively long, somewhat turned outside, free to near the connate base, contracted below the middle and more enlarged toward the obtuse or blunt apex; medial nerve broad, abruptly vanishing under the apex; lateral veins very close, oblique and arched in passing to the borders, forking once from the middle or from above the base.
The substance of the fern is sub-coriaceous, the surface of the pinnules being inflated or convex. The specimen represents only an ultimate pinna.
Habitat—Buck Mountain, Locust Run, Columbia Co., Penna., No. 1293 of the collection of the National Museum.
Leaf bi-pinnate; primary and secondary rachis very thick, distinctly regularly lineate-striate lengthwise; pinna attached at right angles, but slightly curved upward, distant; pinnules also at right angles, sessile by their whole base, scarcely connate at base, but contiguous to the middle, linear, narrowed to an obtuse apex; medial nerve thick, nearly percurrent; lateral veins at right angles, very thin and close, parallel, scarcely forking, apparently simple.
A fine species known by the figured specimen only. The primary rachis is 14 m.m. broad, flat, distinctly thinly striate, the striae being parallel, separated by thinner lines, like the veins of leaves of Cordaites; the rachis of the lateral pinnae 4 m.m. broad, is also flat, less distinctly striate; the pinnules 2 c.m. long, 5 m.m. broad at base, are linear or nearly so to near the apex where they are gradually narrowed in rounding to an obtuse apex. The medial nerve is broad but not deep or deeply marked; the veins extremely thin and close, scarcely discernible with the lens, are apparently simple, at right angles and not at all oblique at base, so that the leaflets appear like small pinnules of Taeniopteris; the surface is flat, rugulose, as seen Fig. 5a; the substance thick, coriaceous.
Habitat—Cannelton, Penna. Lacoe's, No. 1007.
ALETHOPTERIS MAXIMA, Andrews.
Coal Flora, p. 187.
This species was established upon a detached ultimate pinna or pinnule. A specimen discovered later represents a large branch bearing pinnules. The main rachis is 7 m.m. broad at the base of the pinna, part of which, 18 c.m. long, is preserved. It bears on each side 8 simple ultimate pinnae 7 to 7-1/2 c.m. long, 13-14 m.m. broad near the base, not contiguous on the borders, but parallel, linear-lanceolate, apparently obtuse at the apex (the upper part is nearly effaced by maceration), abruptly decurring to the rachis in joining it and connate to the upper border of the leaflet underneath. The nervation is very close, as described by the author, the lateral nerves forking once or twice and reaching the borders at right angles, not turning upward (as described and figured by the author), but joining the thick medial nerve by a downward curve.
Coal Flora, p. 189.
Coal Flora, p. 190.
PSEUDOPECOPTERIS DIMORPHA, Lesqx., Plate XCVIII, Figs. 4, 4a.The specimens figured in Coal Flora l.c., are all more or less disfigured by the expansion of the pinnae and pinnules to one side and their contraction to the other; therefore, their true features are not distinctly seen. The fragment figured now, represents a part of the plant in its normal state; the pinnae linear, the ultimate divisions or pinnules attached at right angles and by the middle to a narrow rachis, oblong-lanceolate in outline, pinnately lobed; lobes 3-4 on each side, broad, obtuse, the terminal also obtuse or half round. That part represents the middle of a long pinna, like that of Plate XXXV, Fig. 1 of the Coal Flora, or a fragment like Fig. 5 of the same plate, only larger, showing the frond to have been a very large one and the species closely related, by the form of its pinnules, to Pseudopecopteris speciosa, Lesqx., l.c. Plate LI, the nervation also being of the same character. The relation of this species is also marked with Pseudopecopteris Pluckneti; and indeed, most of the species of this group, as I have remarked it already, extremely variable as they are, pass by multiple forms from one to the other, rendering their limitation very difficult.
Coal Flora, p. 201, Plate XXXV, Figs. 1-6.
Habitat—The specimen figured is from Olyphant; there. is still another like it, from the Orchard vein, mine F, Plymouth, Pa, Lacoe's, No. 349a and 349b.
"Geol. of Penna.," as quoted in Coal Flora. A new one, recently procured, represents the species partly as it has been figured, partly with a difference essentially marked in the pinnules which are close, smaller, 2-3 m.m. long, 1-1/2 m.m. broad, with the medial nerve more strongly marked, There are also some fragments with longer pinnules, 5-7 m.m., more or less distant, decurring at base as in the normal form, lanceolate, obtuse, lobate on the borders, with the lowest pinnules pinnately lobate, passing thus to a pinnatifid division, as in some species of Pecopteris or Gleichenia. For this reason the species should be referred to the first section of the genus, that of the Gleichenites.
Habitat. The new specimen has been procured at Alton, Penna. No. 931 of Lacoe's cabinet.
PSEUDOPECOPTERIS NUMMULARIA, Gutb., Plate CIII, Figs. 1-3.Fronds large, dichotomous; pinnae, large, bipinnatifid; secondary pinnae open, nearly at right angles, alternate, equally distant, linear-lanceolate, comparatively long; pinnules inclined upward, ovate-lanceolate, sessile by the base of the medial nerve, not decurring, alternately lobate; lobes ovate, three pairs on each side, half round, at right angles to the medial nerve, connate at base, the terminal small, oval or obtusely pointed; medial nerve flexuous, pinnately divided; lateral nerves dichotomous, forking 2-4 times; surface smooth.
Gutb. "Abdruck," p. 43, Pl. IV, Fig. 5; X, Fig. 7, 8; XI, Fig. 3.
The description of this species, made from the specimens we have on hand, does not agree entirely with the figures and descriptions of European authors. In Gutb., l.c., Pl. X, Figs. 7 and 8; XI, Fig. 3, the pinnules are longer, 4-5 lobate on each side, the lobes round, narrowed, subpedicellate and generally decurring at base, and the veins radiating and dichotomous from the base. In Heer, "Fl. fos. Helvet," Pl. XIV, Figs. 6-6b., where the species is also figured and described, the form of the pinnules and of the lobes is the same as upon the American specimens; but the lobes are more distinct, separated to the base, where they are somewhat narrowed and decurring. The nervation is as figured in Plate CIII, Fig. la. The only representation of a species agreeing in its forms with those of the American specimens is that of Roehl "foss. Fl. Westph.," Pl. XVI, Figs. 6 and 6a., a large tripinnatifid pinna, which he refers to Sphenopteris stipulata, Gutb. But this last species, according to Geinitz, is far different from Sphenopteris nummularia being for him identical with Sphenopteris irregularis. Compared to Sphenopteris stipulata of Gutb., the American forms present still more marked differences and therefore it is questionable if it should not be described as a new species. We may even have two different species in those specimens. For all those from the subconglomerate measures preserve as their essential characters the form of the lobes half round, connate at base, not decurring, though extremely variable in the size of the pinnules, as seen Figs. 1-3 of Plate CIII. But in some specimens from Cannelton and in those from Clinton, Mo., the pinnules are somewhat larger, the lobes nearly round, 3 rarely 4 on each side, distinct to near the base, and somewhat decurring.
Habitat --1st type. Subconglomerate measures. Campbell's ledge, Pittston, R. D. Lacoe; Arkansas, Harvey. 2nd type. Coal above conglomerate, Cannelton, Penna., I. F. Mansfield; Clinton, Mo., Dr. J. Britts.
Sphenopteris obtusiloba, Brgt., "Veget. Foss.," p. 204, Pl. LIll, Fig. 2.
Though I have not seen this species in the former years of my explorations it appears to be locally abundant especially in the sub-conglomerate coal measures. It is extremely variable in the subdivisions of the pinnules which sometimes are all more or less. distinctly trilobate in each pinna, but sometimes also entire in the upper part of the pinnae, gradually smaller upward and most variable in forms. One of the more marked varieties, found sometimes with the normal form, is that which representing Sphenopteris dilatata, Ll. and Hutt., "Foss. Fl.," Pl. XLVII, has the pinnules either simple, entire, or three-lobed, the lobes being generally enlarged at the apex and the pinnules, when simple, widely apart and contracted at base to a short petiole. The nervation is that of the normal form of Pseudopecopteris obtusiloba, the primary nerve forking at and above the base in two or three branches, each entering one of the lobes, and the branches forking again once or twice within the lobes according to their size. The rachis, in the variety as in the normal form, is smooth, somewhat flexuous; the secondary pinnae very long, as long as 13 c.m., rigid, parallel, at right angles, lanceolate, the tertiary inferior pinnae (or pinnules) at least 2 c.m. long, gradually shorter upward, the lowest, with 4 rows of alternate lobes, the lobes 3-4 lobate, or in the upper pinnules bi-lobate or entire, the terminal small, obtuse, often crenate. In the normal form, the secondary pinnae are short, only 4-5 c.m. long, the tertiary ones are five lobate, the lower lobes bi- or tribolate, the upper entire. But both forms of pinnules with the same sub-divisions are sometimes observed upon the same specimen.
Habitat—Specimens of the normal form are from W. Va. and from Clinton, Mr. Lacoe's, No. 348. Those of the variety from Wyoming mines, W. Va. Lacoe, No. 261.
PSEUDOPECOPTERIS ANDRAEANA.Lower pinnules of the ultimate pinnae 2-5 lobed, the upper simple; lobes alternate, obovate, oblique, two or three on each side; upper pinnules gradually shorter with one lobe on each side, the terminal larger, all denticulate on the borders; nervation dichotomous-flabellate from the base of the primary nerves, immersed into the epidermis, obsolete.
Sphenopteris Andraeana, Roehl, "Foss. Fl. Westph.," p. 62, Pl. XXII, Fig. 6.
I have only seen small fragments of this peculiar species which, in its aspect, the general outline of the pinnae, the form of the pinnules and of the lobes, even in the nervation, has the greatest affinity to Pseudopecopteris obtusiloba. The essential difference is in the thick substance of the pinnules wherein the veins are imbedded and therefore often obsolete, not prominent, and in the distinctly denticulate borders. The main rachis is flat on the borders, channeled in the middle.
Habitat—Blacksburg and Malden mine, W. Va. Lacoe' s, No. 817.
Coal Flora, l.c., representing one of the, forms of the species which, polymorphous like the other ferns of this genus, has characters somewhat different in the divers parts of the same plant. With the fragment figured, the description will be more easily understood.
Habitat—The specimen figured is from Cannelton, Pa., procured by Mr. I. F. Mansfield.
Sp. nov., Plate XCVIII, Fig. 3.Leaf pinnately divided; secondary pinnae long, linear-lanceolate, narrow; tertiary pinnae ( pinnules) distant, sessile by the abruptly narrowed or obliquely truncate base, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, pinnately lobed; lobes short, obtuse, the terminal broader and obtuse; surface hispid or scaly; nervation obsolete.
Of this species I have seen only the specimen figured. It is a straight, rigid pinna, with a narrow rachis and alternate distant compound pinnules, 9 on each side, inclined upward, the lower 18 m.m., upper 8 m.m. long, 1 c.m. or less broad at base, regularly pinnately divided to below the middle of the lamina into short obtuse lobes, turned upward, all very entire. The surface is punctulate or rough, as by scars of scales or hairs destroyed by maceration. The species has a distant relation to the preceding, but is evidently different.
PECOPTERIDEAE.The small specimen now figured represents the species in a somewhat different character, especially in the form of the leaflets which are not all connate at base, or attached to the rachis by their whole base, but some of them rounded to the point of attachment by the middle of the pinnules and more or less distant. That the difference is not of specific value is seen in the peculiar fact that on the left side of the rachis, the pinnules are decurrent, connate at base, or attached by their whole width, while on the right side they are rounded at base, joined to the rachis by the middle and disconnected. The form of the terminal small oval pinnule and the nervation are the same in both specimens.
Coal Flora, p. 221.
Coal Flora, p. 223.
PECOPTERIS ROBUSTA, Lesqx., Plate XCIX, Figs. 4, 4a.
Coal Flora, p. 229, Plate XXXIX, Figs. 7-8.
Habitat—The- specimen figured is from Mazon Creek, in concretions. The fragments described l.c. p. 229, were obtained at Port Griffith, near Pittston, from a bed of shale considered as above coal F.
PECOPTERIS ASPIDIOIDES, Brgt.,This species has been considered by Schimper and other European authors as a variety of Pecopteris arborescens. I have formerly admitted the same opinion; but from numerous specimens constantly representing the same character in all the localities where they have been found and where the true Pecopteris arborescens has not been observed, I now admit the species as distinct. It differs from Pecopteris arborescens by its generally larger size, the pinnae broader, the pinnules longer, the terminal one very small, nearly round or bi-trilobate, the lateral veins distinctly curved backward and the strongly striate rachis.
"Hist. d. Veget. Foss.," p. 311, Pl. CXII, Fig. 2.
Pecopteris arborescens, var. aspidioides, Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 231.
Habitat—Numerous specimens have been received from Ottawa, Kansas; from Cannelton, Penna., and also from Mazon Creek, all localities of the lower coal strata above the conglomerate, while Pecopteris arborescens, very abundant at the horizon of the Pittsburgh coal and above, has been very rarely found at a lower stage.
Pecopteris arborescens, which it resembles. The pinnules are sometimes very small, 1-2 m.m., but sometimes as long as 5 m.m., always abruptly truncate at the apex or nearly square, very close to each other, contiguous on the borders, though not connate. The rachis is broad, distinctly punctulate, the nervation generally obsolete.
PECOPTERIS SERRULATA, Hartt., Plate CI, Figs. 4-8a.Frond tripinnately divided; pinnae oblique, alternate, distant, lanceolate, variable in length; pinnules ovate-lanceolate, more or less deeply dentate or serrate; lateral-nerves oblique, simple or forking at the apex; fructifications in round very small sori, placed in single rows quite near the borders of the pinnules.
The definition of this species as given by Schimper "Pal. veget.," III, p. 495, and that of Dawson in "Geol. Survey of Canada," p. 55, are both incomplete, as made from too small specimens. The frond of this species has the same kind of divisions as that of the Cyatheites, the ultimate pinnae being either simply or doubly pinnate, according to their position upon the fronds. In Fig. 7, the lobes of the pinnae are entire ovate obtuse small pinnules, 2-3 m.m. long, separated to their base. In Figs. 5 and 6, these lobes are 3-5 m.m. long, merely serrulate, shorter or longer, enlarged and connate at base. In Fig. 4, the lobes, like small ultimate pinnae, are 10 to 15 m.m. long, lanceolate, deeply dentate, with the medial nerves pinnately divided and the veins forking at the apex. In all the numerous specimens which I have seen of this species, the veins are sometimes simple, sometimes forking once or twice, as in Pecopteris plumosa or dentata, Brgt. The fructifications are placed quite near the margins of the leaflets, in small round sori, generally covered, at least in the specimens I have seen. As far as can be seen, the only marked difference between this species and some of the varieties of Pecopteris dentata, is the smallness of all its parts and the slenderness and flexibility of the rachis.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate coal measures, abundant—Arkansas, F. L. Harvey, also at Tracy, Tenn., Dade, Georgia.—Lacoe's, No. 859.
PECOPTERIS OBSOLETA, Sp. nov. Plate CXI, Figs. 29, 29b.
It will be seen in the figure that as it is often the case in species of Pecopteris, the pinnules of the ultimate pinnae become gradually connate, simple, the pinnae becoming large pinnules. In this species, the upper leaflets are not connate but rounded at base and oblong-obtuse, somewhat contracted in the middle, like those of Pecopteris Strongii. The texture of the leaves of this species is extremely thin and delicate, as most of the branches rachis and leaflets are totally destroyed by maceration, leaving upon the specimens the sori only, whose position indicates the outlines of the pinnae and pinnules. By their peculiar distribution and the form of the sori, the species resembles what Weiss has published as Ptychocarpus hexastychus, "Foss. Fl.," p. 95, Pl. XI, Fig. 2.
Habitat—Cannelton, Penna.; I. F. Mansfield.
PECOPTERIS CARRII, Sp. nov., Plate C, Figs. 3, 3a.Pinnae bipinnatifid; lateral pinna nearly linear, at right angles to the narrow straight rachis; pinnules alternate, distant, oblong-lanccolate, abruptly pointed, decurring by the prolonged base bordering the rachis, distantly 3-4 dentate on each side, pinnately nerved; primary nerves thin but very distinct; the secondary alternate, oblique and curving in passing to the teeth, the lower pair only forking once above the middle, the other simple.
I do not know any species to which this could be compared. The fragment of a pinna which represents it is rigid and regular in all its divisions. The alternate pinnae, at right angles, are 8 m.m. distant, parallel, the lower 3 c.m. long, the upper 2 c.m.; but they all appear broken and were probably much longer; the pinnules inclined outside, all equal and equidistant, 4 m.m. long, 2 m.m. broad at base, are decurring along the rachis, which becomes narrowly winged by the basilar prolongation of the leaflets. The borders of the pinnules are cut into distant short teeth turned outside, separated by shallow sinuses, and the lateral nerves alternately curve in passing obliquely from the mid-rib, each division corresponding to one tooth and entering it, as seen Fig. 3a enlarged.
Habitat—Mazon Creek; in nodules; only one specimen. Communicated by J. C. Carr of Morris.
PECOPTERIS GEORGIANA, Sp. nov., Plate XCVIII, Fig. 6, 6a.Ultimate pinnae at right angles, linear; rachis thick, inflated, bordered by a narrow lamina cut into very small pinnules connate to the middle, regularly turned outside like the teeth of a saw, bidentate at apex; primary nerves simple at base, inclined, forking at the apex, each branch entering one of the teeth.
This species, abundantly, found in the sub-conglomerate coal measures, is closely allied to Pecopteris erosa, Coal Flora, p. 255, Plate XLIV, Fig. 1-3, but appears different by its thick coriaceous substance inflated and like cartilaginous along the broad rachis, and by the lobes more inclined outside, separated to the middle and only bidentate, the teeth being short and sharply pointed. In Pecopteris erosa, the pinnae are short, 2 to 3-1/2 c.m. long. In this form or species, they are much longer; for other specimens obtained later, have fragments of leaves at least twice as long as those figured. It is, however, remarkable that in the same localities or in the sub-conglomerate measures, a form of this species or an allied species has been found with the divisions or lobes acutely 4 to 5 dentate, the medial nerves pinnately forking in two branches which, either simple or forking, enter each one of the teeth. This form evidently corresponds to that of Pecopteris cristata, which, as seen in the description of the species; Coal Flora, p. 256, seems to be a variety of Pecopteris erosa.
The group of Pecopteris (Crestate) has been separated by Zeiller into a new genus, Grand'Eurya, apparently identical to the genus Saccopteris established later by Stur.
Habitat—Dade, Georgia, also found in Tennessee. Lacoe's, No. 855, 855a.
PECOPTERIS ORNATA, Sp. nov., Plate CXI, Figs. 30-30b.Fragment of a bipinnatifid lanceolate leaf; ultimate pinnae slightly oblique, rigid, short, narrowly lanceolate, contracted at their point of attachment to the main round rachis, slightly decurring, pinnately cut along the borders into short obtuse lobes filled by 2 to 4 round open sori, exposing to view the small globular sporanges disposed in a circle around a central point, Figs. 30, 30b, as in species of Hemitelea of our time. The secondary rachis is round, smooth, and very thin, the lateral veins, obliquely diverging from it, enter each of the lobes and are apparently simple. The species is in close relation to and of the same group as Pecopteris stellata, Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 260, Plate XLVIII, Figs. 7, 7b—and Pecopteris lyratifolia, ibid., Coal Flora, p. 259, Plate XLVIII, Figs. 4-5b.
Habitat—Mazon Creek, in nodules No. 1008 of Lacoe's cabinet.
SOROCLADUS, Lesqx.The specimens figured show more evidently the peculiar characters of that fruiting frond, first in the mode of division of the rachis which is bipinnate; then in the mode of attachment of the capsules containing sporanges, which are sessile or short pedicellate, and then, Fig. 5, in the evidence of the nature of these organs as the fructification of a fern. It is regrettable that the sterile part, top of Fig. 5, is not larger, as its characters, the form and the nervation of the pinnules, can not be satisfactorily recognized. The characters appear to be those of the fern described as Pecopteris abbreviata ? Brgt. Coal Flora, p. 248, Plate XLVI, Figs. 4-6a; but it is probably a new and distinct species, as the specimens of the so-called Pecopteris abbreviata sent to Europe for comparison, have not been recognized as referable to Brongniart's species.
Coal Flora, p. 327.
SOROCLADUS SAGITTATUS, Lesqx., Plate C, Figs. 4, 5.
Coal Flora, p. 329, Plate XLVIII, Figs. 10-10b.
Habitat—Found only in the concretions of Mazon Creek.
Coal Flora, p. 268.
Coal Flora, p. 269.
SPHENOPTERIS CRISTATA, St., Plate CII, Figs. 1, la.
Coal Flora, p. 273.
Pecopteris cristata, Brgt., "Veget. foss.," p. 856, Pl. CXXV, Figs. 4, 5.The specimen figured agrees with the description in Coal Flora, l.c. It differs slightly from the European form by the lobes a little more deeply cut and the teeth more acute. The pinnules are also a little longer. As the specimens have been somewhat distended, as they generally are in the Coal Measures of Rhode Island, the slight differences are unimportant. Other specimens have shorter lobes and shorter pinnules.
Habitat—Rhode Island, not rare. Collection of Lacoe, No. 828.
Leaves tripinnatifid; pinnae long, linear-lanceolate; pinnules ovate-oblong, abruptly narrowed at base, pinnately lobate; lobes trifid, sharply dentate; nerves pinnate, the divisions trifid, entering the teeth.
This form differs from the preceding not only by the smaller size of all its parts, but essentially by the trifid divisions of the lobes of the pinnules, each of the divisions being acutely bi- or tridentate. The secondary rachis strong and rigid, the pinnules only half as long as in the normal form. It may be a distinct species.
Habitat—Cannelton, No. 897, of Lacoe collection.
SPHENOPTERIS COMMUNIS, Sp. nov, Plate CIV, Fig. 1, 1a.Fronds deltoid-lanceolate, tripinnatifid; pinnae at right angles on a narrow rigid winged rachis, narrowly oblong-lanceolate, alternate, parallel pinnules slightly inclined upward, decurring to the rachis by a narrow border, oblong-lanceolate, irregularly pinnately lobed; lobes oblong, obtuse, cut to below the middle or nearly connate in the upper pinnules, entire or indistinctly crenulate on the borders; medial nerves somewhat flexuous, pinnately divided; veins rarely simple, generally forking from the middle, more or less incurred along the borders, sharply marked.
This species is so much like Sphenopteris pseudo-Murrayana, described Coal Flora, p. 271, that I was at first inclined to consider it as a variety; the more so, as Brongniart' s species, Pecopteris Murrayana, is represented under divers forms. There is, however, a marked difference in the rigidity of the pinnae, in the nearly coriaceous texture of the pinnules and in the nervation, the veins being all distinctly marked, rather prominent and the veinlets generally forking. The pinnules all have the same shape and the same kind of division, the lowest, 2 to 13 m.m., according to their position, have the lobes separated to below the middle, decurring, entire or obtusely crenulate, the lobes of the upper ones are connate nearly to the apex, and therefore the upper pinnules appear as regularly crenate or undulate on the borders. The divisions of the stipe, both primary and secondary, are narrow and bordered by a narrow band formed by the decurring base of the pinnules. The nervation is distinctly seen upon the enlarged Fig. 1a.
Habitat—Very common in the sub-conglomerate coal of Arkansas, Male's coal, also sent from Dade, Georgia, and from Tracy, Tennessee, No. 442, Lacoe's collection.
SPHENOPTERIS PLICATA, Lesqx., Plate CXI, Fig. 28.
Lesqx. "Geol. of Penna., 1858, p. 862, Plate IX, Fig. 3; Coal Flora, p. 292.
The species appears to be very rare. I found the fragment published in "Geol. of Penna.," l.c. at an old abandoned shaft behind New Philadelphia. The one figured here is from a nodule of Mazon Creek, No. 997 of Mr. Lacoe's collection.
SPHENOPTERIS (PROPER.)Primary pinnae large, lanceolate in outline, with a flexuous canaliculate rachis; secondary pinnae alternate, distant, oblique at base, recurred in the upper part; tertiary pinnae open, nearly at right angles, lanceolate, alternately pinnately lobed; lobes 5-7 on each side, oblique, oblong-lanceolate, decurring, connate at the base only, bi- triobtusely crenate; medial nerve flexuous, pinnately branched, each branch entering one of the lobes and forking once or twice, the veinlets passing up to the points of the teeth.
Coal Flora, p. 274.
SPHENOPTERIS GRAVENHORSTII, var. B., Brgt., Plate CI, Figs. 1-1b.
Brgt. "Vegt. Foss." p. 191, Pl. LV, Fig. 3.
There are two specimens of the species; the smaller of the two is figured. The characters of both are the same. The rachis is canaliculate in the middle or narrowly flat-margined, distinctly flexuous, comparatively narrow, about 2 m.m., that of the secondary pinnae being nearly as broad. The lobes of the pinnules are short and obtusely dentate or crenate; but the lobes are distinct to the base. In the normal form, figured by Brgt. l.c., the teeth of the lobes are more distinctly marked and more acutely dentate. The author remarks that var. B. of this species has the pinnae shorter, more deeply pinnate, the rachis sinuous and the pinnules deeply partite, with more acute lobes. I refer the American form to this variety with which it agrees by the flexuous radius, but the pinnules are not more deeply divided nor the lobes more acute than in the normal form.
Habitat—Dade county, Georgia; sub-conglomerate coal; found only in two specimens. No. 262 of Lacoe's cabinet.
SPHENOPTERIS HYMENOPHYLLOIDES, Brgt., Plate CII, Fig. 2.Ultimate pinnae linear-lanceolate; pinnules open, less oblique than in the last species, decurring to the narrow winged rachis, ovate-lanceolate, pinnately lobate above the constricted base; lobes bi-, triacutely dentate, the terminal teeth entire, sharply acute.
Brgt., "Veget. foss.," p. 189, Pl. LVI, Fig. 4.
This form differs from the European by the broader wing of the rachis. The specimen, much smaller than that of Brongniart, apparently represents the upper part of a frond or of a secondary pinna, with ultimate pinnae preserved upon one side only. The main rachis is narrow, the pinnae about 5 c.m. long, the pinnules a little narrowed near the base, ovate above, average 1 c.m. long, 5 m.m. broad, all sharply bi-, tridentate, connate above the base; lateral veins bifid near the apex, their divisions entering the teeth. The venation is of the same character as that marked for the preceding species in Fig. 1a enlarged.
Habitat—Cannelton, Penn'a.; I. F. Mansfield.
The stipe is large, a fragment of it, apparently at the base of a frond is 3 c.m. in width, flattened. The rachis in all its divisions is smooth (not punctate as described from fragments of stems probably pertaining to Sphenopteris mixta). The primary pinnae are very large, flexuous, tripinnatifid, with a rachis 2 m.m. broad; the secondary are alternate, 3 c.m. distant, flexuous, linear-lanceolate, the lower 12 c.m. long or more, with 20 to 24 pairs of alternate oblique pinnules; tertiary pinnae, 3 c.m. long at the base, gradually shorter toward the apex, all linear-lanceolate. These are composed of 6-12 pairs of alternate oblique oblong lobes, quite, close, contiguous near the base, somewhat enlarged upward, crenate or obtusely dentate at the apex, rugose or verrucose on the surface, as seen Figs. 3a and 3b. The veins of the pinnules are pinnately forked, the veinlets in the lobes dichotomous, the divisions entering the teeth. The fructifications, Figs. 4 and 4a, are round inflated or flat sori, at the end of the upper branches of the veins, near the borders, and quite distinct from the small tubercles covering the leaves; the sporanges, however, are not visible. The fructifications resemble those of species of Dicksonia.
Habitat—Large specimens have been procured near Nelsonville, Ohio, from coal No. 6, by the kindness of Superintendent Roy, for Mr. Lacoe's collection, No. 372. Fruiting specimens have also been sent from Clinton, Missouri, by Dr. Britts.
This species, which I cannot compare to any other, is remarkable for the unequilateral shape of its small pinnules which are nearly triangular, and for the strong very distinct nervation. The main rachis is comparatively thick, 3 m.m., the secondary very narrow, flexible, scarcely 1 m.m.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate coal of Arkansas, F. L. Harvey.
SPHENOPTERIS (HYMENOPHYLLITES.)Fragments of a tripinnatifid frond. Primary rachis comparatively thick, half cylindrical in the middle, flattened on the borders; primary pinnae open, flexuous, distant, irregularly scattered upon the stone; secondary very oblique, decurring, alternate, erect or curved backward; pinnules or tertiary branches close, decurring, cut to near the base in alternate filaments dichotomously divided into very slender filiform branchlets, either naked or bearing al the apex globose punctiform sori apparently naked, sometimes irregularly grouped.
Coal Flora, p. 281.
SPHENOPTERIS HARVEYI, Sp. nov., Plate CIII, Figs. 7-7b.
This fine species is allied to Sphenopteris Bronnii, "Gutb. Abdr," p. 37, Pl. V, Figs. 1, 2, described and figured in fruit in "Lein., Verst.," p. 17, Pl. XXIII, Figs. 15 and 16. It differs essentially by the of the segments of the pinnules which are alternate, close, divided to near the base into very thin filiform dichotomous branches, longer and narrower than in the European plants, all of the same thickness, either naked or bearing globose sori at their apex.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate coal of Arkansas, F. L. Harvey, very rare, No. 370 of Lacoe's collection.
SPHENOPTERIS (DIPLOTHMEMA) TRACYANA, Sp. nov., Plate CI, Fig. 2.Primary pinnae lanceolate, with a strong rigid rachis traversed by the flexuous narrow pith or axis; secondary pinnae long, linear-lanceolate, open or slightly oblique, with a rigid strong rachis; pinnules alternate, somewhat distant and oblique, bi-, tripinnately divided into lobes cut into 2 to 4 short linear narrow alternate segments.
A beautiful fern seen only in the fragment figured. The rachis is broad and rigid, but appears to have been composed of a thick bark of soft texture and a hard narrow axis which is alternately inclined to the point of attachment of each pinna. The secondary pinnae, alternate and parallel, 10 to 15 m.m. distant, are rigid, open; the pinnules alternate, 5-7 in. in. distant, oblique, are composed of a radius thick at base, gradually narrowed upward, and of alternate lobes cut in very narrow generally alternate 2-4 linear obtuse segments, 1 to 1-1/2 m.m. long, less than 1/2 m.m. broad.
The species is allied to Diplothmema Schutzei, Stur, "Culm Fl.," p. 128, Pl. XIII, Fig. 4, differing especially by the smaller size of all its parts, the mode of branching, the secondary pinnae alternate open, the pinnules and their divisions shorter and more slender. In the European species, the rachis is thick and transversely rugose. Both species, however, are of the same type.
Habitat—Tracy, Tennessee, No. 930 of Lacoe's cabinet.
SPHENOPTERIS DIVARICATA, Goepp., Sp. Plate CIV, Fig. 6.Frond pinnately divided; ultimate pinnae linear-lanceolate, short, open; pinnules alternate, ovate-oblong in outline, alternately pinnately lobate; lobes short, linear, or enlarged above, truncate at the apex; nervation obsolete.
Cheilanthes divaricatus, Goepp., "Syst.," p. 238, Pl. XII, Figs. 1, 2.
Calymnotheca divaricata, Stur, " Culm. Fl.," p. 165, Pl. XIII, Figs. 1-3.
Sphenopteris elegans, St. not Brgt.
Prof. Stur who has figured l.c., a splendid pinna of this species describes the nervation as simple or bifid. In the specimens I have seen, no trace of nerves is visible and none are seen on Goeppert's figure. The species is closely related to Sphenopteris elegans, Brgt.; the appearance is however different. The pinnules are more distinctly pinnately lobed, longer and narrower, the lower lobes bifid, the upper linear, narrower, longer, truncate or bifid.
Sp. nov., Plate CIV, Figs. 7-10.
This fine species is known only by small fragments of pinnae with ultimate divisions at right angles. The rachis is comparatively broad-winged, canaliculate, and flexuous or sub-geniculate. The ultimate pinnae are short, only 2-3 c.m., mostly broken, one only being preserved nearly entire, 2 c.m. long. The pinnules are close, alternate, inclined outside, from 7 to 14 m.m. long, entire at the decurring base, palmately divided above into 2 to 6 or more linear acute laciniae, with a thin nerve branching according to the number of the divisions, each entered by one veinlet. In the fragments Figs. 7 and 8, the segments of the pinnules are short, 3 m.m., more obtuse, truncate, apparently broken; in Figs. 9 and 10, they are much longer, bi- or trifid at base, each division being split again to the middle into linear-lanceolate sharply acuminate segments 5 m.m. long or even multifid from above the base and cut into 4 to 6 double laciniae. The fragment Fig. 10 would seem to be referable to a different species; but there is a gradual elongation of the pinnules and of their divisions upon the different specimens, as between Figs. 8 and 9, and even upon the same specimen, Fig. 10, from the base upward and therefore it is impossible to indicate a character which could authorize the separation, most of the fragments being disseminated upon the same pieces of shale.
Habitat—Rockwood mines, Tennessee. Specimens procured by Mr. Roy, superintendent of the coal mines of Ohio. Lacoe's collection, No. 1037.
SPHENOPTERIS SOLIDA, Sp. nov., Plate. CI, Fig. 3.A fragment of a lanceolate bipinnate leaf. Primary and secondary rachis thick, round, solid, smooth; lateral pinnae oblique, parallel, rigid, and distant; leaves alternate, either simple, very oblique, decurring, cuneiform, enlarged and very obtuse at the apex, or open, nearly at right angles, much larger, palmately 3-4 lobate, the lobes also cuneiform, obtuse or truncate at the apex; nerves thick, distant, flabellate and dichotomous, diverging from the base.
As far as seen by the specimen, the lower leaves are generally palmately lobed and open, sometimes at right angles upon the main rachis, the others upon the secondary stems are more generally entire, of the same form as the lobes of the lower leaves, cuneiform, obtuse, but some of them also bi- or trilobate, the lobes being sometimes enlarged and obtusely lobate or truncate emarginate at the apex. The nerves are distinct, rather inflated, all joined at base, mostly forking once or dichotomous and flabellate.
The relation of this species is not distinctly marked with any other. It may be compared to Sphenopteris palmata, Schp. Pal. Veg. 1, p. 388, Pl. XXVIII, Figs. 1, 1b, by the thick rachis and the mode of division of its lower leaves; but that is the only point of affinity; for Schimper's species has the rachis broadly canaliculate and narrowly alate, all the leaves palmately divided and the nervation totally indistinct. It has also the same points of affinity and about the same degree of difference with Sphenopteris spinosa, "Geopp. Gatt.," 3 and 4, p. 70, Pl. XII.
Habitat—Mazon Creek, communicated by Mr. Frank T. Bliss.
SPHENOPTERIS OBOVATA, Ll. and Hutt., Plate CIII, Fig. 6.Frond tri-pinnate; divisions alternate, distant; rachis flexuous in all its divisions, vacate or flat by compression; pinnules very oblique, small, obovate, either distant or close, separated to .the base or confluent in their whole length.
Ll. and Hutt., "Foss. FL.," II, p. 75, Pl. 109.
Adiantites microphyllus, Goepp. "Syst.," p. 228.
In the general appearance, the shape, and the relative and varied position of the leaflets, the American form is similar to that described from English specimens. The only difference may be in the nervation, which, in the specimens I have examined, is generally obsolete. The English authors figure the pinnules (as seen in the magnified fragment) with a thick medial nerve and thin very oblique veinlets derived from the nerve, dichotomous and curving to the borders, as in a Neuropteris. The description however says: "No mid-rib can be found of these pinnules, nor any kind of veins beyond a number of parallel striae which fork occasionally." Upon some detached leaflets, I have observed obscure veinlets, apparently very close, diverging from the base, therefore appearing as described by Ll. and Hutt., but no trace of medial nerve.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate coal measures of Arkansas; F. L. Harvey.
Bi-pinnate; rachis round, solid, inflated at the divisions and somewhat flexuous; primary pinnae lanceolate, the lateral oblique or at right angles, alternate, oblong or linear-lanceolate, obtuse; pinnules alternate or sub-opposite, cuneiform, decurring at base, rarely entire and obovate, generally trilobate or quadrilobate, the lobes connate to above the middle, oblong or obovate, obtuse, entire; veins flabellate, dichotomous from the base of the pinnules, very thin, but distinct.
The lower lateral pinnae about 3 c.m. long, are rapidly shorter upward, passing near the top to trilobate pinnules. In Fig. 4, the lobes appear to be crenulate at the upper border, as in Eremopteris crenulata, Coal Flora, Plate LIII, Fig. 1; but that is a mere appearance caused by the breaking of the slate or by the closeness of narrow lobes. The texture of the leaves is subcoriaceous. In some parts the rachis is transversely rugose. The species is related to Sphenopteris nervosa, Brgt., "Veget. Foss.," p. 174, Pl. 56, Fig. 2, a species which has the nervation much stronger. It is a true Eremopteris.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate coal measures, Tracy, Tennessee. No. 1038 of Lacoe's collection.
ARCHAEOPTERIS, Dawson.I have had lately the opportunity of examining, for determination of the species, a number of finely preserved large specimens of Archaeopteris, all obtained from the Red Shale of the Pocono at Meshoppen and along the Susquehanna liver above Pittston, Penna. Though the species are not represented in figures in this volume,* I give here an abridged account of the result of my researches. They may facilitate the future study of the beautiful plants of this genus.
Coal Flora, p. 299.
The specific characters of Archaeopteris may be derived:
1st. From the rachis, which is either smooth or striate lengthwise, with or without points or asperity on the surface, or distinctly rough, or transversely rugose.
The transverse rugosity of the stems is however not always distinct. Some stems more or less evidently striate lengthwise are marked here and there by more or less distinct points or small protuberances, especially upon the bark, and these are sometimes so close that it is difficult to ascertain if the rachis is merely striate or if it is rough or transversely rugose.
2d. From the nervation, either thin, obsolete, or distinct. The nervation is generally more distinct near the base of the pinnules or along their upper border.—Taken altogether the nervation has nearly the same character in all the species, being either totally or partly obsolete, or more or less distinct, even upon the same specimen, and therefore the nervation by itself alone does not afford a definite or reliable character.
3d. From the form and position of the pinnules and from the contexture of their borders, either entire or denticulate, or coarsely dentate, or split.—The leaflets are more or less enlarged upward, exactly wedge-shaped, or more or less broadly obovate. They are entire at the upper borders, or split and laciniate, or denticulate by the projection of the nerves, or more coarsely dentate all around. But, according to the degree of maceration or to the mode of preservation, the borders of the leaves are more or less distinctly crenate or split, and the excurrent nerves are more or less projecting out of the curved outline of the borders.
4th. From the distribution of the flowers, either in the middle of the tertiary branches, placed in series of short racemes taking the place of leaflets which occupy the lower and the upper part of the pinnae, or occupying by themselves alone the place of tertiary pinnae, the racemes being then without leaves.—The distribution of the flowers probably affords a good character for a diagnosis. But the flowers or organs of fructifications are rarely formed and generally indistinctly preserved.
5th. From the presence or absence of free pinnules placed upon the main rachis in alternation with the secondary pinnae.—The ramification of all the species of Archaeopteris is by opposite or sub-opposite divisions. In some species, however, the secondary branches are alternately replaced by simple pinnules and in that way the branches become alternate, though the normal sub-division is preserved, as each branch becomes opposite to a simple pinnule. That conformation appears to be peculiar to certain species and permanent in them, thus affording a reliable character. But sometimes the pinnae are close, crowded, and it is then not possible to see if simple leaflets are interposed to the branches.
According to these remarks and considering the more important characters, the American species of Archaeopteris, as far as I know them, may be distributed as follow:
A. Rachis smooth.Pinnules alternating upon the main rachis, with secondary pinnae.
1. Archaeopteris hybernica, Forbes. Pinnules generally large; borders crenulate; nervation thin, obsolete or riot distinct without magnifier.
2. Archaeopteris Halliana, Daws. Pinnules small, with a long narrow base ; borders entire.—Species known to me only from description.
Pinnae opposite, without alternation of pinnules.
3. Archaeopteris denticulata, Sp. nov. Pinnae rigid, short; pinnules close, very oblique, narrowly obovate, denticulate at the upper border by the projection of the veins, which are excurrent terete or filiform, very distinct.
B. Rachis striate lengthwise; pinnae opposite.
4. Archaeopteris minor, Lesqx. Leaves of various size, entire on the borders; nervation more or less distinct; fructifications in tertiary branches or racemes, interrupting the rows of leaves in taking their place.
5. Archaeopteris sphenophyllifolia, Sp. nov. Radius striate lengthwise and punctulate, rough at its base; pinnae very long; pinnules distant, very oblique, long and narrowly wedge-form, split and laciniate at the upper borders; nerves distinct.
6. Archaeopteris macilenta, Sp. nov. Rachis striate and distantly punctulate; pinnules more open than in the preceding species, ovate, abruptly or rapidly narrowed to a short decurring pedicel, irregularly dentate from below the middle upward; nervation obsolete; flowers in long flexuous racemes at the base of the tertiary branches.
7. Archaeopteris obliqua, Lesqx. Pinnules comparatively long, gradually narrowed to the point of attachment obliquely truncate at the apex; nerves distinct.
C. Rachis rough.
8. Archaeopteris obtusa, Lesqx. Pinnae long and large; pinnules of various sizes, much enlarged above from a prolonged narrow decurring base, sometimes reniform open and close together; more generally distant and oblique; nervation thin; surface smooth.
D. Rachis transversely rugose.
To complete these remarks, which show how uncertain may be the determinations of species of Archaeopteris, made from imperfect or too small specimens, I have to give, for supplying the want of plates, a detailed description of the new species mentioned above.
ARCHAEOPTERIS DENTICULATA, Sp. nov.
Texture of the plants thickish; secondary pinnae long, linear, rigid, with a thick smooth rachis; tertiary pinnae open or oblique, equal, short; pinnules more or less oblique, except the lowest, which is attached to the main rachis and at right angle, all narrowly obovate, obtuse, distinctly, regularly dentate at the apex.
The primary rachis is semiterete, 3-5 m.m. in diameter; the ultimate pinnae are parallel, 7-8 m.m. distant, 2-4 c.m. long, with 10-12 pairs of small pinnules. The denticulation of the upper rounded part of the pinnules is formed by the excurrent points of the nerves, which, decurring at the narrow base of the leaves, are flabellate and dichotomous in ascending, strong and preserving their thickness even to the last divisions, in passing out of the borders as short, acute teeth.
Habitat—Rushville, Ohio. lower carboniferous.
ARCHAEOPTERIS SPHENOPHYLLIFOLIA, Sp. nov.Plants large with a strong primary rugose rachis; secondary pinnae very long, rigid, with the rachis striate lengthwise and punctulate; tertiary pinnae oblique, rigid, linear; pinnules cuneiform, sessile, narrow, more or less deeply split at the apex; nervation distinct.
The pinnules are distant, somewhat open, exactly wedge-form at base, narrow and very much like leaflets of Sphenophyllum angustifolium, Germ. The aspect of the plants is quite different from that of any other species of the genus. The nervation is distinct, visible without a glass, though the surface is covered with a thin epidermis.
Habitat—Meshoppen, Pa. No. 829 of Lacoe's collection.
ARCHAEOPTERIS MACILENTA, Sp. nov.Secondary pinnae very long, oblong-lanceolate, with a striate somewhat punctulate rachis; tertiary pinnae rigid, very oblique, not long; pinnules small, oblique, attached to the rachis by the narrow cuneiform base or a very short pedicel, irregularly dentate from below the middle upward, oval, acute or apiculate by the teeth; nerves extremely thin and close, scarcely discernible even with a strong glass; flowers in opposite long flexuous or pending racemes at the base of the tertiary pinnae.
The secondary radius is 5 m.m. in diameter under the point of attachment of the tertiary pinnae, which, like the pinnules, are at an angle of 30-35°, all rigid; the pinnules are thick and distinctly denticulate from below the middle. On the large specimen figured, some of the pinnules appear truncate; but it is a mere appearance caused by the imbedding into the matter of the stone of a part of the lamina. One of the specimens, however, a fragment also figured, has all the pinnules distinctly preserved. The teeth are not produced by the prolongation of percurrent veins, as in Archaeopteris denticulata; but by expansion, even laterally, of the thick substance of the pinnules. The fertile pinnae or flowers are in separate opposite racemes at the base of the tertiary pinnae, occupying the place of lower tertiary branches ; they are 9-10 c.m. long on filiform, flexuous, half pending rachis.
Habitat—With the preceding, Meshoppen, in large specimens; No. 830 of Lacoe's collection.
Archaeopteris minor, but with the radius transversely rugose, even that of the tertiary branches. The primary pinnae are short and broad, oblong-ovate; the secondary short, half open, at an angle of divergence of 50°; pinnules small, very oblique or inclined along the rachis, 1 c.m. long, scarcely half as broad near the rounded apex. The veins though distant are rarely discernible, except at some places where they are detached by maceration. In some specimens the pinnules are very close, sub-imbricate by the borders; in others they are more distant. The aspect of the plants is peculiar, on account of the thick rachis; the short pinnae being generally crowded and the pinnules comparatively broader, it is thus compact in all its parts. The flowers are in close short rigid racemes, occupying the place of tertiary branches at the base of the secondary ones.
Habitat—Meshoppen, Penn'a. No. 832 of Lacoe's collection.
Coal Flora, l.c. The pinnules, however, are not close and sub-imbricate, but rather distant, variable in size from 2-3 c.m. long and 8-16 m.m. broad, near the apex; they are oblique or inclined but not decumbent upon the rachis, being attached to it by a short decurrent pedicel; the upper borders of the pinnules are distinctly crenulate, even more or less deeply split. The fruiting racemes are placed in the middle of the tertiary branches, as in Archaeopteris minor, Coal Flora, Plate L, Fig. 3.
LYCOPODIACEAE.Under the generic name of Lycopydites, Goldenberg has published a number of species of coal plants which, he says, he considers as true Lycopods of the ancient world, they having the same characters as the plants now described under the generic names of Lycopodium or Selaginella. These species are, therefore, rightly described by Schimper under the name of Lycopodium. They are herbaceous plants with homomorphous or dimorphous leaves, bearing fructifications in cylindrical spikes, like living species, their spores, says Schimper, being still unknown.
Coal Flora, p. 355.
From what we have observed in the American coal measures, some species representing Lycopods by their branches, their leaves and their ramification are not herbaceous. They cannot be referable to the genus Lycopodites, as defined by Goldenberg, and nevertheless they are not branches of Lepidodendron, though they have been considered as such by Brongniart and other authors. Brongniart says, "Tableau des genres," p. 40, that the plants, really analogous to Lycopods, are very rare in a fossil state and that most of those which he himself or other authors had referred to Lycopodites are probably young branches of Lepidodendron or of Conifers. I have already published some species of this kind, apparently contradicting the opinion of Brongniart, and those we have now to add show still more evidently that some plants of the Coal Flora, closely allied to Lycopods, differing from those of our epoch by woody stems, are not referable to Lepidodendron. The definition of the genus Lycopodites may therefore be preserved as quoted from Goldenberg, Coal Flora, p. 357, with the simple modification of "Plants herbaceous or woody."
LYCOPODITES ARBORESCENS, Sp. nov., Plate CVI, Fig. 1.Stem thick, woody; primary branches derived nearly at right angles and diverging by an inside curve, dichotomously sub-divided; branchlets flexuous or pending; leaves oblong, acute, concave, without medial nerves, and imbricated in spiral order.
The stem, nearly 3 c.m. in diameter, is flattened, irregularly punctulate, transversely, distantly rugose and marked longitudinally by distant irregularly straight or flexuous striae. It has no remains of leaves or scales and no trace of scars left as point of attachment of the leaves. The branch, nearly one c.m. in diameter at the point where it separates from the stem, is first smooth, or without leaves, gradually slightly narrowing to the point where it forks into two divisions of equal thickness, 4 m.m. in diameter, which are covered with distant compressed scaly form leaves, to the point where the branches, forking again, become flexuous pending and then covered with imbricated half-open leaves, 5 m.m. long and 1 m.m. broad in the middle.
No point of comparison is found for this species in any of the European authors who have described the plants of the coal. But for the leaves, at least, and their dispositions, the analogy is clearly marked with Lycopodites cavifolius, Lesqx., described in "Rept. of the Geol. Survey of Ky.," by D. D. Owen, p. 437, Pl. ined; and also with Selaginites (Lycopodites) crassus, Lesqx., "Geol. Rept. of Ill," p. 446, Pl. XXXIX, Fig. 8. In both these species, which are perhaps varieties of the same, the leaves have identical characters in their concave shape and the total absence of a middle nerve.
Though no living species can be compared to that figured Plate CVI, analogy of ramification is remarked in some Lycopods of the present epoch, for example, in Lycopodium inflexum, Sw., whose primary stems larger than the secondary, are horizontal in their direction, while the secondary curve upward in the same way and the same angle of divergence as that remarked upon the fossil species, of which the stem was possibly creeping or growing horizontally, like that of the above named plant.
Habitat—Subconglomerate measures of Arkansas. Communicated by F. L. Harvey. No. 257 of Lacoe's collection.
Dichotomous from the base of the largest branches; primary stipe irregularly, interruptedly costate, marked by punctiform scars of leaves; branches long; leaves distant, in spiral order, oblong, obtuse, narrowed to the point of attachment, inflated in the middle, but not distinctly nerved, all reflexed or horizontally recurved.
LYCOPODITES FLEXIFOLIUS, Sp. nov., Plate CVI, Figs. 3, 4.
The primary or lowest part of the stem, Fig. 4, is about 1 c.m. in diameter, rugose, costate lengthwise, punctulate by irregular round dots, points of attachment of the leaves; the stems, gradually diminishing in size by forking, are very slender, scarcely 1 m.m. in diameter in their ultimate divisions. The leaves are generally partly embedded into the stone in such a way that their real form is not easily ascertained. They appear oval or oblong, obtuse, generally truncate, as partly embedded, all reflexed and distant, and without distinct costa, though they are generally inflated in the middle.
Habitat—Subconglomerate coal measures of Arkansas. F. L. Harvey.
LYCOPODITES SIMPLEX, Plate CVI, Fig. 2.Spikes long, linear; sporanges and leaves in horizontal close rows; sporanges small, apparently round, axillary; lcaves short, small, narrowly lanceolate-acuminate.
This fragment evidently represents the fruiting spike of a species of this genus, being analogous in its characters to the spikes of living species of Lycopods, Lycopodium inflexum, for example, already quoted, and especially very similar to Lycopodites leptostachys, Goldenb. "Fl. Sarraep." I, p. 12, Pl. 1, Fig. 4, of the Carboniferous of Germany. In this new species, the rows of sporanges are close, very small, round, each apparently in the axil of a small leaf or scale, these leaves being open-erect, narrowly lanceolate, sharply acuminate, 2 to 3 mill. long, less than 1 m.m. broad at base. The fruiting spike appears to have been very long, the fragment preserved being still 14 c.m. long, cylindrical, very gradually narrowed upward, being at the broken base 4 m.m. in diameter (flattened), and 3 m.m. at the apex.
Habitat—Subconglomerate Campbell's Ledge, Pittston. Lacoe's No. 258.
Spike long and broad, bearing crowded round tubercles or sporanges in horizontal rows, axillary or interspersed with linear-lanceolate leaves; pedicel long, slightly flexuous, enlarged to its base and upward to the base of the spike.
The specimen being perfect the figure represents the whole organism as far as it is discernible. The spike without the pedicel is 34 c.m. long, 1-1/2 c.m. in diameter in the middle, being gradually narrower to the apex, where it is only half as broad. The pedicel is 13-1/2 c. m. long, 5 m.m. in diameter in the middle where it is narrower. The sporanges are globular, about 2 in. m. in diameter, sometimes compressed or irregular in shape, on account of their crowded position in close horizontal rows. The scales or leaves, about 1 c.m. long, a little more than 1 m.m. broad at base, are erect, or inclined upward, lanceolate-acuminate, without distinct medial nerves, either placed between or at the base of the sporanges, which, however, do not appear axillary. The long pedicel, gradually narrowed to the middle, is gradually enlarged to its base in the same proportion. This long, quite smooth pedicel seems like an anomaly in the fructification of Lycopods. But, in fragments of other specimens of this species, the pedicel has been found chaffy or scaly at its base, and gradually covered above by distant lanceolate imbricate leaves, as seen in the description of Lepidostrobus, Lacoei, l.c., to which this species was first ascribed. The characters of this spike are far different from those of a Lepodistrobus, as can be seen by the specimen figured.
Habitat—Olyphant, No. 1 vein. Collection of Mr. R. B. Lacoe, No. 524.
LEPIDOPHLOIOS, Sternb.The character of the plants described as Lomatophloios by Corda have been carefully studied by the author, who has given sufficient information on their internal structure to prove their relation to the Lycopodiaceae. Less, however, is known of the outside characters of these plants as possibly recognized in fragments of stems or leaves, like those found preserved in the carboniferous of this continent, and especially on their fructification. Plate CV, therefore, has its value, in representing altogether the best specimens obtained from the American Coal measures; fragments of bark, with the scars of leaves upon small and large branches, either corticated or decorticated, and parts of a strobile bearing spores and blades or bracts of sporanges, showing the enormous size of the cones pertaining as fructifications to this genus.
Lomatophloios, Corda, Coal Flora, p. 418-429.
LEPIDOPHLOIOS DILATATUS, Sp. nov., Plate CV, Figs. 1-4.Scars of bolsters transversely much enlarged, contracted and acute at the sides, rounded in the upper and lower parts, mamillate in the middle; leaf scars narrowly rhomboidal, transversely enlarged; lateral angles narrowly acute, the upper and lower very obtuse; vascular scars three, the middle larger. Cones or sporophores very large, composed of appressed linear large scales, cordate truncate at base, covering large and long agglomerations of macrospores.
Possibly this species may be the same as that described and figured Coal Flora, p. 424, Plate LXVIII, Fig. 2, as Lepidophloios macrolepidotus, Goldenb. It seems however, different, by the bolsters and leaf-scars much enlarged sidewise, with very narrow acute lateral angles. In some specimens of Lepidophloios laricinus, the bolsters and leaf-scars are often much enlarged laterally; but even in specimens of smaller size and far more distinctly so in those with large scars, the bolsters are comparatively longer lengthwise than transversely. In Goldenb. "Fl. Sarraep.," Pl. XVI, Figs. 1, 6, the small bolsters measure 5 m.m. in both directions, the large ones 2-1/2 c.m. transversely and about 3 c. in. vertically. In the American species the small scars more than 1 c.m. in lateral width are scarcely 5 m.m. in vertical direction, and the large ones preserving the same proportions are 3-1/2 c.m. transversely and scarcely 1-1/2 c.m. vertically measured. There is also a marked difference in the size and form of the scars of the decorticated surface. In Lepidophloios laricinus the sub-cortical scars are round, very small, while in the American species they are oblong or narrowly oval, more than twice as long as broad.
The cone, Plate CV, Fig. 1, appears to be of the same kind as the fragment in Coal Flora, p. 427, Plate LXVIII, Fig. 6, mentioned as representing fructifications of Lepidophloios. The figured part appears to be a flattened fragment of the outside of a large cone with imbricated scales or bracts, covering long linear agglomerations of macrospores which are of the same form as those figured Coal Flora, Plate LXVIII, Figs. 7-7b, only a little longer. At the upper part of the specimen, the blades have been destroyed and have left distinctly exposed the agglomerations of spores compressed into long cylindrical masses, 3 to 4 c.m. long, 1 c.m. broad. Flattened layers or lumps of these spores are easily separated from the stone whereupon they are compressed into a thickness of 2 to 3 m.m. and contain an innumerable number of spores without trace of any sporanges. The blades seen on the side of the specimen are most of them broken at the apex, the few remaining upon the surface appear like fragments or impressions of imbricated bracts covering the spores or perhaps their sporanges, of which, as said above, no trace is been in connection with the clusters of spores.
Habitat—The specimens figured are all from Cannelton, Penna., communicated by I. F. Mansfield. Others of the same kind, representing stems and branches, but no fructifications, have been sent by Dr. Britts from Clinton, Mo.
LEPIDODENDRON.Branch dichotomous covered with indistinct small regularly broadly rhomboidal or square bolsters, bearing a cylindrical obtuse comparatively long, strobile.
Coal Flora, p. 363.
LEPIDODENDRON STERNBERGII, Brgt., with cone, Plate CVII, Fig. 2.
Coal Flora, p. 366.
LEPIDOSTROBUS VARIABILIS, Ll. and Hutt., Plate CVII, Fig. 2.
Coal Flora, p. 434.
This beautiful specimen shows part of a dichotomous twice forking branch, 2 c.m. in diameter in its lower undivided part, reduced first to 1 c.m. after the first forking, and to 5 m.m. in the lateral branchlet bearing the cone. The scars upon the stems have only the outlines preserved. Their shape is identical to that of the scars of Lepidostrobus Sternbergii, Brgt., or Lepidostrobus dichotomum, St., as figured "Fl. d. Vorw.," Pl. 1, in large stems with branches covered with scars, like those of our specimen.
The cones of this species, as represented by Schimper, "Paleont., Veget.," Pl. LVIII, Fig. 5, are only a little smaller, cylindrical, of the same form as that of Fig. 2, and most probably, as Schimper remarks, it is to this Lepidodendron that are referable the cones described as Lepidostrobus variabilis in Ll. and Hutt., "Foss. Fl" Pl. X and XI, and those figured by Brgt., "Veget. Foss.," Vol. II, Pl. 22 and 23. All these strobiles are cylindrical, variable in length from 5 to 15 c.m. long and from 1-1/2 to 2 c.m. in diameter. Though the blades of the sporanges are not distinctly preserved upon the American specimens, they appear from their impressions upon the strobile to have been short, narrowly lanceolate, like those seen upon the cones figured by Lindly.
Habitat—Braceville, Grundy co., Ill. No. 601e of Lacoe's collection.
LEPIDODENDRON (BERGERIA) MARGINATUM, Presl., Plate CVII, Fig. 3.Bolsters rhomboidal-ovate, narrowly margined all around, acute at the base and the apcx, straight; marked near the upper margin by a globose tubercle, and in the middle by a short vertical line.
Bergeria marginata, Presl. in St., "Fl. d. Vorw.," p. 134, Pl. LVIII, Fig. 16.
The specimen is concordant in all its details with the figure given by Sternberg, l.c. The bolsters are 12 to 14 m.m. long, 10 to 12 broad in the middle.
Habitat — Clinton, Mo., communicated by Dr. J. H. Britts; Plymouth, Pa. F vein. No. 357, Lacoe.
LEPIDOSTROBUS, Brgt.The specimen represents a somewhat large axis, flattened by compression, bearing large oblong sporanges truncate at the point of attachment, obtuse at the apex, sometimes a little contracted in the middle, smooth and transversely wrinkled on the surface, filled with macros-pores which are distinctly seen without the glass, the spores being 1 m.m. in diameter.
Coal Flora, p. 431.
LEPIDOSTROBUS MACROCYSTIS TRUNCATUS, Lesqx., Plate CVIII, Fig. 1.
Lepidophyllum truncatum, Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 458, Plate LXIX, Figs. 9, 10.
I have three specimens of different fragments most alike. The lower sporanges, attached by the base, are without sporangiophores, thick, a little convex on the surface, apparently filled with spores. The upper ones are open, and the spores are still in groups upon them, though the shale is covered with a profusion of those which have been strewn around. The two, Figures 9 and 10 of Plate LXIX show two sporanges, one empty of its spores, the other with some of them still attached to it. The spores are represented, Fig. 9, in their natural size and Fig. 9a, enlarged. The relation of this spike with that described as Lepidostrobus macrocystis, Plate LXIX, Fig. 1, is easily recognized.
It might be supposed that these large Lepidostrobi are fructified cones of Lepidophloios. The one represented Plate CIV [connection ? - GL,III, ed.] is more evidently that of a Lepidophloios and is of a far different character. They might be referable to some kind of Sigillaria. It is a remarkable fact that though fruiting remains of Lycopodiaceae abound at Cannelton, species of Lepidodendron are there comparatively rare.
Habitat—Cannelton. Sent by I. F. Mansfield.
LEPIDOPHYLLUM, Brgt.Sporanges large, quadrangular, oblong, sometimes shorter, nearly square; blades enlarged at base, long, acuminate from the middle; medial nerve narrow.
Coal Flora, p. 447.
LEPIDOPHYLLUM CULTRIFORME, Sp. nov., Plate CVII, Figs. 13, 14; Plate CVIII Fig. 2.
This species is generally found in separate sporanges with their blades still attached to them. The sporanges vary from 10 to 15 in. m. long, being generally 7 m.m. broad, flattened; the blades, generally open near the base, curved up from the middle, are 2 c.m. long and 5 m.m. broad at the part where they pass out of the cone. I have not seen any of the sporanges open, but some have the surface marked with points or impressions of the spores underneath.
The form, Plate CVII, Figs. 13, 14, is slightly different. The sporanges are narrower, not as distinctly quadrangular, obtuse at both ends; the blades are broader, generally shorter, varying in length from 1-1/2 to 2 c.m. and being 3 in. m. broad at the base.
Habitat—The first form is not rare at Cannelton; the last has been collected in numerous specimens in the sub-conglomerate, Campbell's Ledge near Pittston, by Mr. Lacoe.
LEPIDOPHYLLUM FALLAX, Sp. nov., Plate CVII, Figs. 4, 5.Size large; blades linear or oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate; medial nerve broad; sporanges comparatively short, narrowed to a blunt point.
The species is intermediate in its size and form between Lepidophyllum acuminatum and Lepidophyllum lanceolatum. The blades average 5 c.m. long and about 1 c.m. broad in the middle; the sporanges a little more than 1 c.m. long, are comparatively longer than those of Lepidophyllum lanceolatum and shorter than of Lepidophyllum acuminatum. Fig. 4 may represent a different species. The blade is generally narrower, more linear, less acuminate, the medial nerve is not half as thick, but the sporange is of the same form and character.
Habitat—Specimen Fig. 4 is from Rhode Island anthracite coal, that of Fig. 5 from Cannelton, Pa. Both are in the collection of Mr. Lacoe as No. 892 and 892a.
Blades of medium size, gradually enlarged from a narrow base to far above the middle, then rapidly acuminate; sporanges small obconical, acute at base.
The blades are 5 to 6 c.m. long, 5 m.m. broad at the point of union to the sporanges, gradually enlarged above to below the apex, where they are 10 to 15 m.m. broad, and then rapidly narrowed to a sharp point or acumen. The sporanges are only 5 to 6 m.m. long. The medial nerve is comparatively thick, 2 to 3 m.m. at base.
Habitat—Subconglomerate, Campbell's Ledge, Pittston. No. 658 of Lacoe's collection.
LEPIDOPHYLLUM GRACILE, Sp. nov., Plate CVII, Fig. 8.Size small; blade exactly narrowly lanceolate, sharply pointed; sporanges comparatively long, narrowed to a very acute base.
The blade, 2 c.m. long, is only 4 m.m. broad at the point of union to the sporange, which is 6 m.m. long; the nerve is broad.
Habitat—Same as last above. No. 894, collection of R. B. Lacoe.
LEPIDOPHYLLUM MINUTUM, Sp. nov., Plate CVII, Fig. 9.Blade broad and short, a little longer than broad, 5 m.m. long, 4 m.m. broad at base or triangular, btunt at the apex, with a thick medial nerve.
The blade only has been seen. It is shorter than that of Lepidophyllum brevifolium in "Geol. of Penna., 1858" p. 876, Plate XVII, Fig. 6. But probably it is referable to the same species. As the sporange is destroyed, identification is impossible.
Habitat—Archibald, Pa. No. 673 of Lacoe.
LEPIDOPHYLLUM CORIACEUM, Sp. nov., Plate CVII, Fig. 10.
Blade oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, broader at and above the base, of thick texture, polished, broadly nerved and marked on each side of the costa by two thick inflated stria parallel to the borders, passing from the upper part of the blade and vanishing above the base; sporange short, as broad as the blade at the point of union, constricted into an acuminate base.
The blade, 12 m.m. broad at the base, nearly 4-1/2 c.m. long, is narrowed at the apex to a sharply apiculate point; the space between the striae is about equal to the width of the costa, 2 m.m.; the striae are not sharply defined, but obtuse, the space between them being somewhat concave. The sporange is 1 c.m. long.
Habitat—Cannelton, Penna., rare. No. 672 of Lacoe's collection.
LEPIDOPHYLLUM ELEGANS, Sp. nov., Plate CVII, Fig. 11.
Blade short, slightly enlarged in joining the sporange, contracted above the base, broader above the middle, then tapering up to a sharp point; sporange slightly contracted and narrowed to an acuminate base.
The blade is 18 m.m. long, 7 m.m. broad above the point of connection to the sporange, and 1 c.m. at the middle; the sporange is 6 m.m. long and as broad, a little narrower than the blade at the line of connection; the costa is comparatively thick at the base of the blade.
Habitat—Brown colliery, Pittston. Lacoe, No. 737.
Coal Flora, l.c., is that the blade is not acuminate but only pointed, nor carinate by the thick midrib but tumescent along it.
TAENIOPHYLLUM, Lesqx.I have nothing to add to the description of the genus, l.c. The description of the following species merely confirms the supposed relation of the plants of this kind to the Lycopodiaceae.
Coal Flora, p. 461.
TAENIOPHYLLUM BREVIFOLIUM, Sp. nov., Plate CVIII, Figs. 3, 3a.
Leaves short, closely appressed, flat by compression, but apparently tubular and hollow in their original state; macrospores spread in flakes upon the surface along the leaves, seemingly coming out from the leaves as from long cylindrical sporanges containing them.
There are two fine specimens of this species. The leaves are compressed one upon another, without symmetrical order, short, about 3 c.m. long, 3 m.m. in diameter, linear, narrowed into a blunt apex. The bundles of spores are irregularly placed, some in small compact groups, others more disseminated or spread along some leaves as if forced by compression out of a tubular envelope or sporange. All the spores are macrospores, 1 m.m. in diameter, as figured Fig. 3a. The fragments show the plant in its whole length, as an agglomeration of leaves compressed from the base to the apex which is genrally broken. The texture, as seen at the surface is that of Taeniophyllum contextum, Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 465, Plate LXXXII, Figs. 2, 2a. These plants may be the young shoots of the same species. In the description of Taeniophyllum contextum, I remarked on the relation of the plants to Isoetes. The relation is still more evident in these short plants. But the nature and the character of the sporanges are as yet unexplained.
Habitat—Cannelton. No. 774 of Lacoe's collection.
Coal Flora, p. 63.
That generic name was used, l.c., for the provisory description of vegetable remains which, in a too deficient state of preservation, could not be definitively described, and which, therefore, could not be affixed to their legitimate place until their affinities had been demonstrated by the discovery of better specimens.
The first of the two species placed in the genus Trochophyllum, viz: Trochophyllum clavatum, described, Coal Flora, p. 65, Plate III, Figs. 21-23a, has been recognized as representing half destroyed fragments of strobiles of Sigillaria, described here below as Sigillariostrobus Laurencianus. Of the other species, Trochophyllum lineare, Coal Flora, p. 64, Plate III, Figs. 24-25b, I have now received a large number of specimens which demonstrate the affinities of the plant with the Lycopodiaceae. Fragments of the same kind, though of different aspect, having been described by Prof. Dawson under the name of Ptilophiton, this last generic name should be admitted, while that of Trochophyllum, for as far as it refers to the plants I have described in it, has to be abandoned.
PTILOPHYTON, Daws.Branching plants; branches bearing long slender leaves in two or more ranks, giving them a feathered appearance; venation circinate. (Dawson.)
Notes on Scottish Devonian Plants, 1878.
This definition is limited to one species only of the genus, which was then still imperfectly known. The numerous specimens of different facies, mostly of the same type as that represented in Coal Flora, Plate III, Fig. 24-25b, which have been discovered in Ohio, necessitate a modification of the primitive generic description, as follow:
Branches short, apparently in loose tufts, mostly simple, gencrally erect or circinate when young; rachis narrow, transversely tuberculate; leaves or appendages distichous or in whorls, rigid, oblique, either very thin, filiform, or larger, linear, obtuse, rounded at base to their point of attachment to a tubercle, vesicular and flattened; sporanges disposed upon the stems in the same way as the leaves, but longer, distinctly tubulose-triquetre; either empty or filled with macrospores.
PTILOPHYTON VANUXEMI, Dawson.Stem, slender, simple, rarely forking; leaves pinnate, contiguous, linear, a little more than 1 c.m. long, apparently cylindrical and tubular, narrowed to the point of attachment, oblique.
Quat. Journ. Geol. Soc. XVIII, p. 314, Pl. XVII, Fig. 57.
Filicites, Hall, Geol. Rep. of New York, p. 273, Fig. 125;
Vanux. Rep. p. 175, Fig. 46.
Plumulina plumaria, Hall, 1858.
Habitat—Chemung group of New York, Hall.
I know this species only by the figures and descriptions of the authors.
PTILOPHYTON GRACILE.Stems short, erect or circinate above; rachis comparatively thick; leaves or appendages very thin, strict, contiguous, filiform, oblique.
Plumulina gracilis, Shumard.
I cannot say positively that the specimens of Ohio represent the same species as that of Shumard, as I have not had an opportunity of seeing its decription or figures. But Hall in a Note on the genus Plumulina, "13th Rep. of the State Museum of New York," April, 1879, remarks, that regarding his species Ptilophyton plumaria as the type of the genus, he recognized that of Shumard as Ptilophyton gracilis.
In my specimens, the leaves are as thin as fine hairs, not discernible to the eyes, very close, oblique, parallel, 5 to 6 m.m. long; the rachis, however, is comparatively broad, 1 m.m. or as broad as is the small pinnae of the following species.
Habitat—Found in a large boulder or ferruginous concretion in beds of clay of the Waverly Sandstone near Rushville, Ohio.
PTILOPHYTON LINEARE, Dawson.Branches simple with a slender articulate and tuberculate rachis; leaves either short and small, or longer, linear, obtuse, rounded and narrowed at base to the point of attachment upon the tubercles which appear in close transverse rows of three upon the upper flattened surface, flat, or tumid and vesicular, black, coriaceous, irregularly wrinkled on the surface by compression; sporanges cylindrical-quadrate and tubular, empty or filled with macro-spores.
Fossil plants of the Devonian and Upper Silurian of Canada II, p. 125, Fig. 5, woodcut.
Trochophyllum lineare, Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 64, Plate III, Figs. 24, 25b.
The species is represented under divers aspects.
1st. In very small flat thick or vesicular leaves 2 to 15 m.m. long, 1 to 3 m.m. broad, evidently of vegetable nature, as shown by the coaly texture and black color.
2d. In long narrow cylindrical leaves 1-2 m.m. broad, 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 c.m. long, of the same texture as those of the preceding group.
3d. In cylindrical-quadrate tubular appendages, apparently sporanges, containing large macrospores and showing a quadrangular transverse section. The rachis and the point of attachment of all these leaves or sporanges are of the same character.
I have been long time in doubt on the true nature of those tubular appendages which I now consider as sporanges. For though the matter embedding the fragments of plants, a very hard concretion of ferruginous clay, bears generally an abundance of large spores spread all around the branches and the leaves, I was unable to distinctly see the spores in the sporanges which are sometimes crushed by compression. I have now two specimens which show groups of spores enclosed in the sporanges. They have been carefully figured with the fragments of these remarkable plants for future elucidation of their characters. They evidence the nature of these organs as vegetable, and show their relation to be with the Lycopodiaceae. I am not yet certain that the leaves are distichous. As they are attached by a very slender base to the tubercles of the stems and are apparently very brittle, the lateral ones only may have been preserved, while those of the upper part were broken and destroyed. The tuberculate scars are in rows of six, apparently; at least, three are exposed upon the upper surface of the flattened rachis and therefore the leaves appear to have been verticillate like the sporanges of Sigillariostrobus Laurencianus, which, upon some of the specimens, are exposed to view by the deterioration of the surface and appear flattened on both sides of the rachis. The rachis, however, is marked with the scars of the points of attachment upon its upper surface, very much like the stems of Plumalina (maybe Ptilophyton ? - GL,III, ed.) lineare. This is clearly seen in comparing in Coal Flora, Plate III, Figs. 21-23a with Pl. III, Figs. 24-25b, the first being an axis of Sigillariostrobus, the second, the rachis of Plumalina lineare.
The relation of these plants to vegetables of the present epoch is unknown. They were apparently living in low marine water; for to their stems, even to the leaves, are sometimes attached small bud-like protuberances appearing like very small shells or their eggs. These are considered by Hall and Dawson as small brachiopods.
Habitat—Near Rushville, Ohio, in the same boulder and in numerous specimens with only two of the preceding species. All the specimens are preserved in Mr. Lacoe's cabinet.
Coal Flora, p. 466.
Nothing more positive is known at the present time on the relation of the Sigillarieae, either to the Lycopodiaceae as cryptogamous plants, or to the Cycadeae as Gymnosperms, than when the first part of the Coal Flora was published. That question is now reconsidered by two celebrated anatomists and physiologists, Professor M. B. Renalt, of the Museum of Natural History of Paris, who has admitted Brongniart's views, relating the Sigillarieae to the Cycadeae, and Professor W. C. Williamson, of Manchester, who sustains the contrary opinion. In the controversy which has been extremely interesting to phytopaleontologists, both authors have produced, in support of their ideas, remarkable works on the texture of Sigillaria and Lepidodendron; nevertheless, the question remains undecided or just at the same point as it was when first considered by Brongniart. The little I have said on the subject, Coal Flora, l.c., is sufficient to show why I am disposed to admit the relation of Sigillaria to Lepidodendron, and I should not come again to the subject if I had not recently obtained some new evidence in favor of that opinion. That is explained in the description of the two following species of Sigillaria, one only of which is new. To my regret, the specimens have been obtained too late to be figured in this volume.
SIGILLARIA, Brgt.The new specimen represents a fragment of stem or branch with the cortex marked with the areoles and the regular rugosity of surface of Sigillaria monostigma, and part of an ear or strobile, Sigillariostrobus, referable to the same species by its association and its position partly under the branch upon the same fragment of shale.
Coal Flora, p. 467.
SIGILLARIA MONOSTIGMA, Lesqx.
Coal Flora, p. 468, Plate LXXIII, Figs. 3-6.
The branch, 2-1/2 c.m. broad, has still some leaves attached to the scars. The areoles are closer than on the specimen Plate LXXIII, Fig. 3, only 4 to 5 m.m. distant; but they are of the same size and form, marked by a single central vascular scar, and the surface between the areoles is striate in the same way by lines tending obliquely and in opposite direction toward the scars. The leaves of the species, which I had not seen before, are somewhat broad, 3 m.m. in diameter, slightly keeled in the middle, on the lower face, by a thick medial nerve, which is concave on the upper. There is, also, between the medial nerve and the borders a thin veinlet distinct here and there upon the leaves, none of which are preserved whole. The strobile, partly covered by the stem, is long and linear, 2 c.m. broad, flattened, covered with imbricate enlarged rhomboidal scales, tumid at base and closely appressed. There are still two other detached fragments of the same species, if not of the same strobile, both linear, each 8 to 9 c.m. long. One is covered the half of its length by the imbricated scales which, destroyed on the other half, leave exposed to view the sporanges attached in horizontal rows to an axis, 3 to 4 m.m. broad. The sporanges are nearly at right angles, oblong, vesicular and flattened by compression, 5 to 6 m.m. long, 2 m.m. broad. The third specimen is, by the destruction of its covering of scales and part of the sporanges, open its whole length. In the lower part, the sporanges have been already detached, but the sporangiophores are still in place, fixed at right angles to the rachis, like filaments very narrow toward the base, enlarged or clavate outward, indeed, exactly of the same form and in the same position as what I considered to be the leaves of Trochophyllum clavatum, Coal Flora, p. 65, Plate III, Fig. 21. As the scars of the points of attachment of these sporangiophores are also of the same nature and in the same position as in Fig. 22 and 23, l.c., these as yet problematic remains, provisionally placed in the genus Trochophyllum, are now recognized as fragments of cones of Sigillariostrobus whose sporanges have been detached by maceration, the sporangiophores being still partly left in place, but often already partly broken, as seen Fig. 21, l.c.
These spikes, which may be named Sigillariostrobus Laurencianus, though very different from any kind of Lepidostrobus, have the same essential conformation; viz: sporanges about of the same form, attached in horizontal rows to a vertical axis, supported by persistent sporangiophores with lanceolate scales, turned up and imbricate.
Hence, if Sigillaria monostigma should be considered a true species of this genus, the relation of the Sigillarieae to the Lycopodiaceae would be proved. This relation, however, is contested in regard to the few species which, like S. monostigma, have only one vascular scar marked upon the areoles. But the question may be more clearly examined after the description of the following.
Habitat—The fragments described above, No. 464 and 464a of Lacoe's collection, have all been found near Lawrence, Kansas, in a bed of soft sandstone of the Carboniferous.
SIGILLARIA GRAND'EURYI, Sp. nov.
Supercortical areoles not distant, rhomboidal, constricted and acute at both sides, rounded at thc upper and lower border, symmetrical, convex, traversed from one side to the other by an inflated line marked in the middle by a single round vascular scar; surface between the scars smooth; decorticated surface also smooth, the outlines of the leaf-scars being totally effaced, and the vascular scar only marked by a very distinct small oval concave areole.
The species closely resembles Sigillaria monostigma, from which it differs by the less distant scars, only 2 m.m. from each other, the space between them smooth, the leaf scars tumid, somewhat larger, transversely crossed by a narrow ridge or terete line, and the shape of the subcortical areoles represented by small oval scars concave inside. The specimen has the leaves still attached to the areoles, some of them at least. They are somewhat enlarged at and toward the base, 3 to 4 m.m. broad at their point of attachment gradually narrower to 2 m.m. up to the apex or in their whole preserved length, the longest measuring 12 c.m. The medial nerve is broad, enlarging like the leaves toward the base, where generally one thin vein is seen on both sides of the medial one. The surface is opaque.
The specimen which is large shows the cortical surface with the leaves spreading along it upon the left side, either separately or by a few together or crowded into a compact flattened mass; while on the other side, along the cortical part and bordering it, there is a well preserved axis of Artisia which seems to have been the pith of the trunk or branch whose bark or cellular substance is flattened along it. The connection of the two parts is not ascertainable but appears as distinct as that of the leaves to the scars toward which they are directed, though most of them have been detached. As it is well known, those Artisia have been considered by Corda as the central axis of Lepidophloios, and by more recent authors, as that of Cordaites, also. Hence, the connection of that axis to a stem of Sigillaria would relate the species to Lepidophloios or to the Lycopodiaceae, as nothing in the appreciable character of the vegetable fragment has any kind of analogy to Cordaites.
This relation is admitted by Grand'Eury, but only for the species of Sigillaria, which, like the two described here, have the vascular scar marked by a single round point. But that author does not consider them as true Sigillaria, and separates them in a peculiar genus under the name of Pseudo-Sigillaria, a genus which he places as intermediate between the Lepidodendreae and the Sigillarieae. He remarks that the affinity to the Lepidodendreae is especially evident in the decurrence of the subcortical scars forming longitudinal marks, either splits or lineal fusiform tubercles, while in Sigillaria the subcortical scars are not elongated by decurrence, but flattened, even depressed. In the two species of Sigillaria described above, the first, according to the remark of Grand'Eury should be referable to the Lepidodendreae on account of its elongated tubercles and splits, as seen Plate LXIII, Figs. 5 and 6; while the second should go to the Sigillarieae in consideration of its small oval depressed or concave subcortical scars. The character of the form of the subcorticated leaf-scars cannot, therefore, be considered as indicating the relation to the Lepidodendreae or to the Sigillarieae.
Considering the question on another point of view, it is evident that the spikes or strobiles found with Sigillaria monostigma are of the same character as those figured by Goldenberg, "Fl. Sarraep. foss.," Pl. IV, Fig. 3, and Pl. X, Fig. 2, and if, as the author thinks, these spikes are the fructifications of Sigillaria, the reference of Sigillaria to the Lycopodiaceae is a matter of course. But on this subject again, Grand'Eury says, l.c. p. 159, that the spikes which he has found attached distinctly to stems of Sigillaria differ perhaps entirely from those considered by Goldenberg as the fructifications of Sigillaria. In confirmation of that, he represents l.c. Pl. XIV, Fig. 4, a long spike, curved at base, with close verticils of leaves open at their base, then curved upward and loosely imbricate, somewhat like the ears represented Plate LXXXIX, Figs. 1, 2 [connection ? - GL,III, ed.] organs which I have always considered as related to the Calamarieae like the other species of Calamostachys and Volkmannia, but which the French author would be disposed to admit as fruiting organs of Sigillarieae.
Sigillaria and Lepidodendron and on the characters of the divers organs pertaining to species of this genus, I can but admit, from the nature of the two species considered above:
1st. That Sigillaria monostigma, by its fruiting Sigillariostrobus has its relation to the Lycopodiaceae.
2nd.. That also Sigillaria Grand'Euryi, with an Artisia for the pith of its stem is related to the Lepidophloios and therefore also to the Lycopodiaceae.
3d. That about the reference of these two species to the genus Sigillaria, it may be contested as it has been by Grand'Eury; but judging from the characters appreciable to the sight, the internal structure being unknown, they cannot be admitted in the genus Lepidodendron, and their place and affinities are with Sigillaria.
Habitat—Cannelton. Lacoe, No. 735.
This peculiar inflation of the stem at irregular intervals and the irregularity of the leaf scars upon the knots can result only from an annual growth which, becoming gradually less active upward, as seen from the diminution of the diameter above the articulations, is increased in diameter upon the knots where the vegetation has stopped during a certain length of time, to begin again under more favorable circumstances, in the same way as we see it upon the young trunks or the branches of pines. The same process is remarked upon other stems of Sigillaria, like that of Sigillaria mammillaris, described Coal Flora, p. 484, Plate LXXII, Fig. 5, where the period of rest or interruption in the vegetation is indicated by the presence of adventive, undeveloped buds of leaves.
Habitat—The location of the specimen is indicated by Mr. Huston as being about 50 feet below the Crinoidal limestone of Ohio.
SIGILLARIA MAMILLARIS, Brgt., Plate CVIII, Fig. 6.
Lesqx. Coal Flora, p. 483, Plate LXXII, Figs. 5,6.
Habitat—Large specimens have been procured by Superintendent Roy from the coal mines of Butchel, Ohio, for the cabinet of Mr. R. D. Lacoe.
SIGILLARIA PYRIFORMIS, Brgt.Stem costae; costa 8-10 m.m. broad; furrows obtuse, sinuous, distinct; cortex striate lengthwise, traversed by an arcuate transversal line above the scars, and by two vertical lines or sometimes transverse wrinkles under them; areoles not distant, discoid, oblong, obtuse, enlarged in the lower part, subpyriform; vascular scars 3, placed in the upper part of the areoles, the middle small, punctiform, the lateral arcuate.
The specimen representing this species has the costae 8 m.m. broad, the furrows slightly undulate, the areoles ovate, pyriform, slightly emarginate at top, 9 m.m. long, 6 m.m. broad toward the base, where the lower border forms a short narrow ridge passing obliquely from base of the areoles to the furrows. The vascular scars are placed quite near the upper border; the distance between them is equal to their length; their form is somewhat like that of Sigllaria Lescurii., Coal Flora, Plate LXXII, Fig. 9, but there is a marked difference in the narrower sinuous costae, the comparatively longer and narrower areoles only slightly enlarged below the middle.
Habitat—The specimen described is No. 1312 of the National Museum. Its locality is not indicated. Another specimen less distinct, No. 901 of Lacoe' s collection, from Plymouth, Penna., F vein, also represents the species.
SIGILLARIA LEVERETTII, Sp. nov., Plate CVIII, Figs. 4-5.Stem costate; costae sinuous, transversely rugose, 2 c.m. broad; separated in the young stems by narrow deep furrows 1 or 2 m.m., in old stems, distantly separated by a very coarsely rugose bark, covering a flat irregularly striate surface, sometimes passing above the ribs and covering their areoles which are 2 to 2-1/2 c.m. distant vertically. These are broadly rhomboidal in outline, acute at the apex and the angles, truncate or obtuse at base, with three vascular scars, the central punctiform, traversed by a horizontal line, the lateral semi-lunar.
This beautiful species, without analogy to any other described, shows two different aspects in the specimens figured, differences evidently resulting from the position of the fragments of bark upon the trunk. In Fig. 4, the costae are distant, separated by a layer of thick bark very coarsely striated and undulate lengthwise, and the areoles, of which the lower part is obliterated, are broadly, regularly rhomboidal, the upper lines, joined in an obtuse angle at the top passing down to the lower in rounding at the sides. The vascular scars are indicated by two large lateral semi-lunar appendages inflated at base, joined at the apex by a deep horizontal line; the base of the areoles is truncate and joined to a semi-globular appendage. In Fig. 5, the areoles are more distinctly preserved and formed of an upper rhomboidal scar of which the upper lines are joined in the middle into a short acute point, the lower abruptly turning toward the vascular scars, while the areoles are prolonged downward into a broad obtuse base, enclosing the vascular scars in the middle. The ribs between the areoles are more or less deeply transversely rugose, the wrinkles being thin and close, interspersed with some more distant, thick ones.
DIDYMOPHYLLUM (SIGILLARIA) OWENII, Lesqx., Plate XCII, Fig. 11.The trunk described under this name is here represented exactly with the measurements of its different parts. The circumference of the trunk, near the base, is 1, 12 m.; the preserved standing portion 70 c.m. high, above the roots which abruptly curve to an horizontal direction in 6 or 7 primary branches 12 to 24 c.m. in diameter. They are first forked at 20 to 30 c.m. from their point of divergence from the trunk and measure at their ends, where they are broken, 3 to 8 c.m. in diameter. The representation of the roots in Coal Flora, l.c., was not made from exact measurements; these procured for me a long time ago (1861) by the kindness of Mr. John Chappells Smith, of New Harmony, having been for a long time missing. As the specimen has been lost in the destruction by fire of the Museum of the Indiana University, that copy is worth to be preserved to Paleontology. The leaf-scars are represented first in a reduced measure, proportionally to that of the stems. Fig. 1, la, show them, natural size; Fig. b, enlarged; Fig. c, represents the scars nearly at the origin of the roots; Fig. d, the scars upon the roots [No reference present to a numbered plate for Figs. 1, 1a - 1d - GL,III, ed.]
Coal Flora, p. 507, Plate LXXIV, Figs. 10-10b.
Coal Flora, l.c., I can add only the descriptions of a few species of fruits and flowers recently found and as yet unknown.
CORDAIANTHUS, Grand'Euryi.Raceme simple, long and slender, flexuous; nutlets or flowers round, oval, 5 m.m. long, closely involucrate by oblong obtuse scales apparently attached to the base of the millets in a single row, not longer than the nutlets and covering them like a sepaloid involucre.
Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 544.
CORDAIANTHUS FLEXUOSUS, Sp. nov., Plate CIX, Fig. 2.
The raceme is about 17 c.m. long; the buds or ovules opposite. 1 c.m. distant, gradually a little nearer to each other toward the apex, the rigid bracts being at right angles to the narrow radius.
Habitat—Campbell's ledge, near Pittston. Cabinet of Mr. R. D. Lacoe, No. 846.
CORDAIANTHUS SPICATUS, Sp. nov., Plate CIX, Fig. 1.Involucrate nutlets, distichous, or subalternately placed on both sides of a thick rigid thinly striate stem or rachis, in the axis of linear involucral leaves nearly as long as the nutlets and indistinct.
The seeds are 1 c.m. long, not half as broad, ovate, acute, convex and somewhat carinate in the middle; the involucres are composed of imbricate narrowly lanceolate or acuminate scales apparently embracing the ovules from the base and covering them; the stem is 5 m.m. broad, the ovules 8 m.m. distant, forming a fragment of spike 15 m.m. long.
This species resembles Botryoconus femina, Grand'Euryi, "Fl Carbon," p. 279, Pl. XXXIII, Fig. 1, so much, indeed, that at first sight I was disposed to consider it as identical. But the species of Grand'Eury represents small strobiles, formed of imbricated concave scales, covering each a very small seed axillary placed on their lower side, while the involucrate seeds of this species are true ovules, with a smooth very convex surface, not flattened by compression as would be a strobile composed of scales. The name of Botryoconus is therefore not applicable to this kind of fructification, that genus being proposed by Goeppert for branches bearing spikes composed of imbricated scales, like the Antholithes of authors. The seeds of this species are smaller than those which have generally been described as Cordaicarpus, but not smaller than those figured by Grand'Euryi as Cordaicarpus congruens "Fl. Carb.," Pl. XXVI, Fig. 21; seeds which like those of Fig. 1, l.c., are somewhat carinate on the back. The relation is also marked with the fragment of a spike in Newberry, "Geol. Rep. of Ohio, Paleont." 1, Pl. XLI, Fig. 2, described p. 41 as Antholithes. The seeds of this last spike are oval, hard nutlets, enclosed at base in large short scales, in the same manner as in our Fig. 1, the difference being merely in the size and shape of the nutlets and of the scales.
This and the following species are referable to the group Cordaianthus baccifer, Grand'Euryi.
Habitat—Campbell's Ledge, Pittston, No. 940 of Lacoe's collection.
CORDAIANTHUS RUGOSUS, Sp. nov.Stem large, distinctly transversely rugose; nutlets close, subopposite, distichous, oval or oblong, obtuse, short pedicellate, axillary and involucrate; lower bracts linear-lanceolate, twice as long as the ovules, involucre indistinct, apparently composed of basilar imbricate short lanceolate scales.
The ovules, as seen separated upon the stone and free of their involucre, are 4 m.m. long and two broad, the pedicel is short, 2 m. m. The species is also somewhat like the Antholithes of Newby., l.c., Pl. XLI, Fig. 2, already mentioned above, differing by the ovules longer and narrower, the indistinct involucre seemingly absent and the stem transversely rugose.
To this species I refer as a variety a stem of the same character as the preceding but lineate lengthwise, and rough-punctulate, the points looking like scars of short hairs, the ovules being slightly longer and the involucre also indistinct.
Habitat—The first specimen No. 929 of Lacoe's cabinet is from Shamokin, Pa.; the second, No. 943 of the same collection, is upon a nodule of Mazon Creek.
CORDAICARPUS, Grand'Euryi.The specimen represented Fig. 3 is the best preserved one found among a very large number of seeds of the same kind which have been abundantly collected at Cannelton. The fruits are generally obliterated in their form by compression.
Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 549.
CORDAICARPUS GUTBIERI, Grand'Euryi, Plate CIX, Fig. 3.
Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 549, Plate LXXXIII, Figs. 6-11.
CORDAICARPUS COSTATUS, Lesqx., Plate CIX, Fig. 4.The seed Fig. 4 is in a better state of preservation than that published attached to the stem 1.c. The central nucleus is exactly oval, and the surface convex, surrounded by an inflated, sometimes half round, border. The specific name is that of the Cordaites to which it was found attached, whose stem is remarkable by the prominent bolsters, impressions of the base of fruits and leaves by which old stems have become marked by distinct cost. The fruit is figured overturned.
Cordaites costatus, Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 540, Plate LXXXVI, Figs. 1 and 2.
[also Plate LXXX, Figs. 1 - 3, GL,III, ed.]
Habitat—Very common at Cannelton, also found at Lorberry Junction, Schuylkill county, and at Everhart Creek, near Pittston, Pennsylvania. No. 984 of Lacoe's collection.
CORDAICARPUS CINCTUS, Sp. nov., Plate CIX, Figs, 5, 6.Seeds exactly round, quite flat, attached to a slender, flexuous narrow rachis, bordered all around by a narrow rim; surface smooth, rather polished.
The stem 22 m.m. broad, bears 2 pairs of seeds 1 c.m. in diameter, exactly circular, attached by a slightly inflated narrow border and subopposite. A separate seed, Fig. 6, has the same character. The broken part, seen at its upper border, seems to have been lacerated at the point of attachment.
The seed is referable to the genus Cyclocarpus, Goepp., which has been united by Grand'Euryi to Cordaicarpus and by Schimper to Cardiocarpus. All the seeds of a character similar to the one described above are apparently fructifications of Cordaites. Even many specimens of Cordaicarpus Gutbieri are nearly round seeds, as seen, Coal Flora, Plate LXXXIII, Figs. 10-11.
Habitat—Found in digging down a bed of shale for a cellar; horizon of Coal E, Pittston, Pennsylvania. The specimen Fig. 1 is No. 939 of Lacoe's cabinet.
CORDAICARPUS STABILIS, Sp. nov.Seeds smaller than those of the preceding species, 8 m.m. in diameter, with exactly the same round form, the border narrower, less distinct, the surface smooth.
These seeds are very numerous in the shale of the Arkansas sub-carboniferous coal, mixed with Cordaicarpus ovatus. All the specimens show the same form and the same size.
Habitat—Male's coal, Arkansas, F. L. Harvey.
CORDAICARPUS LINEATUS, Sp. nov., Plate CXI, Fig. 16.Nucleus exactly cordiform thinly striate lengthwise.
This seed, apparently a detached nucleus, seems referable to this genus. It is 1-1/2 c.m. long 12 m.m. broad in the widest part toward the base. It is comparable to the nucleus of the seed of Jordania bignonioides, Fiedler, "Foss," Fruits, Pl. XXVIII, Figs. 37, 44, but still more to Grand'Euryi, Cordaicarpus major, "Fl. Carb.," p. 235, Pl. XXVI, Fig. 16, from which it differs merely by the more deeply cordate and more slender form of the seed with its surface thinly striate.
Habitat—Cannelton, Pa., No. 893 in Lacoe's collection.
Coal Flora should be modified as follows:
Seeds of various shape, composed of a compressed generally cordiform or oval, acute or acuminate nucleus surrounded by a flattened fibrous border or a membranaceous wing and often narrowed at base into a short pedicel or acute appendage.
This modification is forced by the discovery of a number of seeds appearing pedicellate at the base, by the elongation and contraction of the wing, as in Plate CIX, Figs. 13 to 15. In his description of the genus, Brongniart says of the nucleus, that it is short-pedicellate at the emarginate base. The prolongation of the nucleus into the narrowing part of the wing may be observable by anatomical section of silicified seeds; but I have only seen it upon Figs. 13-17 of the same plate and always narrowed, acuminate, ending into the border of the wing or above its base. In some other seeds, as in Figs. 9, 11, 15, this so-called pedicel is represented by a mere round small tubercle and the wing is not prolonged. downward; while still in others, the wing is prolonged into what seems to be a pedicel, and the base of the nucleus remains rounded or emarginate as in many of the figures of Plate CX. These different variations which are not often perceivable upon compressed specimens have forced me to preserve in this genus a number of seeds described as Samaropsis by authors, or under different names by Brongniart, these last from the characters of the inner structure.
CARDIOCARPUS DILATATUS, Sp. nov., Plate CX. Fig. 2.Nucleus comparatively small, broadly ovate or subreniform, sharply pointed, bordered all around by a narrow, convex, and continuous wing, enlarged on the sides, comparatively very broad, emarginate at the base, rounded and narrowed in curving to the point of the nucleus.
Habitat—Sub-carboniferous measures. Arkansas and Campbell's Ledge, near Pittston, Pa. No. 961 in Lacoe's collection.
CARDIOCARPUS PATENS, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Fig. 3.Nucleus nearly round or emarginate at base, there marked with a short round tubercle; wing narrow, converging and narrowed at the base, which is destroyed, broadly emarginate at top to a little above the border of the nucleus.
The central seed is 14 m.m. in diameter, round, not acuminate nor acute at the apex ; the wing broken at base is 3 m.m. wide, joined at the apex by 1 m.m. only of its diameter and traversed by a thick line slightly enlarged on the lower part, passing up from the middle of the nucleus (the nucelle), to the micropile. The inner part of the nucleus is marked by two arched lines diverging from above the nucelle and parallel to the borders, forming like a double testa, as seen in the seed described by Brongniart, Graines foss., "Ann. des Sci. nat. 5e Ser. Bot.," Vol. 20, p. 14, Pl. 21, Figs. 12-13, as Diplotesta.
Habitat—Arkansas Coal measures. F. L. Harvey.
CARDIOCARPUS SPECIOSUS, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Fig. 1.Ovule large, ovate, acute, deeply cordate or emarginate at base, surrounded by a broad margin or wing, parallel to the borders and continuous.
The nucleus is 5 c.m. long, 3 broad in the middle; the wing, fiat and smooth, is 1 c.m. in the middle, narrowed to 5 m.m. at the apex. It is partly destroyed on one side and at base, but appears to have been continued, as it is larger at the base than in the middle of the seed.
I consider this seed to be closely related to that described Coal Flora, p. 593, Plate LXXXV, Fig. 16, under the name of Carpolithes bifidus, Lesqx., if not the same species. The name of Carpolithes bifidus, as originally described "Geol. of Penna.," p. 877, Plate 17, Fig. 10, cannot be preserved, as it was given to a very poor specimen of an undeveloped or crushed fruit, apparently a nucleus, split at the apex by compression and whose relation is very uncertain.
Habitat—Cannelton, Pa. I. F. Mansfield.
CARDIOCARPUS HARVEYI, Sp. nov., Plate CIX, Figs. 22, 23.Fruit large, oval in outline; nucleus oval, slightly emarginate at base, narrowed at the apex and bordering. the micropyle; wing fiat, broad, deeply emarginate at top into two pointed erect horn-like divisions.
The nucleus of the best preserved of these fruits is 2-1/2 c.m. broad, 4-1/2 c.m. long to the base of the notch. The borders are 9 to 10 m. m. broad, quite flat, smooth, while the central part or the nucleus is irregularly verucose on the surface. Fig. 23 differs by the nucleus narrower, obtuse at both ends and the wing not emarginate at base. The difference is probably caused by the degree of maceration and the angle of compression.
Habitat—Arkansas Coal measures, sub-conglomerate. Prof. F. L. Harvey, Tracy, Tennessee. No. 299 of Lacoe's collection.
CARDIOCARPUS LONGICOLLIS, Sp. nov., Plate CIX, Figs. 24, 25.Seeds large, bottle-shaped; nut large, oval or ovate; rounded or truncate at base, smooth or rugose on the surface, prolonged above into a long neck or micropyle; margin broad, continuous and enlarged at base, ascending upward along the neck and bordering it.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate measures of Tennessee. No. 798a and 798b of Lacoe's collection.
Coal Flora is given from less perfect specimens. The nucleus is rarely round, more generally ovate, even narrowly ovate-acuminate, and from its base it is continued downward into a narrowly lanceolate acuminate appendage or axis of a pedicel, the borders or wing being also prolonged downward to the point of attachment.
Habitat—Campbell's Ledge, near Pittston, Sub-conglomerate. No. 293 of Mr. Lacoe's cabinet.
Fig. 16 the basilar appendage of the nucleus, the prolongation of the border being destroyed, and Fig. 17 both the appendage and the pedicel. In this last figure the top of the wing is slightly notched; but I do not consider that as a specific character. The same difference is observed in a number of specimens of a closely allied species, Cardiocarpus cornutus, Daws., "Geol. Survey of Canada, fossil plants," Pl. XIX, Figs. 14, 15, some of which have the border joined at the apex, while others are deeply emarginate and acuminate, the divisions being either diverging or connivent at apex.
Habitat—Campbell's Ledge, Pittston. No. 271 of Lacoe's collection.
Figs. 32 and 33 of Coal Flora, l.c., do not represent the same species, as I supposed it, Fig. 32 being a Cardiocarpus, seen with its testa or border partly preserved, as in Plate CIX, Fig. 7, while Fig. 33 is referable to Rhabdocarpus, this being always found without any border or testa.
Habitat—The specimen figured, Plate CIX, was sent from Arkansas subconglomerate coal by Prof. F. L. Harvey, a different stage of the Carboniferous from that where Rhabdocarpus mamillatus has been obtained.
CARDIOCARPUS OVALIS, Sp. nov., Plate CIX, Figs. 8, 9.Seeds small, nucleus oval or ovate, blunt at apex or obtuse; border continuous, a little narrower at base, emarginate at apex into a minute semilunar notch.
The nucleus Fig. 8 is 10 to 12 m.m. long, 8 m. broad below the middle, truncate or slightly emarginate at base; the ring, Fig. 9, is 1-1/2 m. m. broad towards the base, 2 m.m. at the apex. The point of attachment of the pedicel or appendage is marked by a round depression at the base of the nucleus. The species is allied to the following.
Habitat—Coal measures of Arkansas. F. L. Harvey.
CARDIOCARPUS CONGLOBATUS, Sp. nov., Plate CIX, Figs. 10, 11.Differs from the preceding merely by the exactly round shape of the nucleus and the borders nearly of equal width all around. The apicial notch is not semilunar but rectangular, also very small. In both these species the nucleus is of ten found separately; its surface is somewhat convex.
Habitat—Same as the preceding species.
CARDIOCARPUS DIVERGENS, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Fig. 4.Nucleus broadly ovate, acutely pointed; border parallel to the nut, equal in width or slightly larger toward the apex, joined at the top of the nucleus, and there emarginate, the borders diverging at right angles.
The fruit is about the same size and form as that of Cardiocarpus patens, Fig. 3. But it is of a different structure, the nut being ovate, acute, without trace of nucelle or of micropile and not pedicellate nor tuberculate at base. The nut is 1 c.m. long, 12 m.m. broad ; the border 3 m.m. wide.
The species is related to Cardiocarpus (Cyclocarpus) species, figured in Schp. "Paleont. Veget. Atl," Pl. CX, Fig. 21, which, however, is at least twice as large.
Habitat—Pittston, E vein and Boston mine C vein. No. 964 of Lacoe's collection.
CARDIOCARPUS LATIOR, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Figs. 5, 11, 12.Seeds broadly ovate; nucleus round or ovate, obtuse or with a short acute appendage at base; borders narrow at and toward the base, gradually enlarged upward to the apex where they are connate, except at the upper rounded border.
Fig. 5 is a concave impression showing the outer testa from which the nucleus has been separated. In Figs. 11 and 12 the nucleus is still present, and in Fig. 12 the fruit is partly covered by fragments of the outer testa, transformed into a comparatively thick pellicle of coal. In Fig. 12 the nucleus is prolonged at base into a short-pointed appendage. These three fruits may represent different species, the nucleus being longer and narrower in Fig. 5, shorter, broader, and nearly round in Figs. 11 and 12.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate coal measures of Tennessee. Lacoe's No. 977.
Small seeds. Nucleus ovate, acutely pointed, round or truncate at base; borders comparatively large, rarely distinct, continuous, of the same width all around, emarginate at the apex and separated only by the narrow micropyle marked by a line often continued downward to the base.
The nucleus is 5 to 8 in. m. long, 5 to 6 m. in. broad, very variable in form, sometimes surrounded by a ring or inner testa, as in Fig. 8. The borders are more or less emarginate, some at right angles from the base, as in Fig. 12; others connate to the apex, as in Fig. 9. They have been found either separated or spread upon a large piece of shale where all these forms and other intermediate ones have been observed. They resemble Cardiocarpus simplex, Coal Flora, Plate LXXXV, Figs. 48-50, differing essentially by the thick inflated or convex surface of the nucleus, and the narrow border less deeply or broadly emarginate. It is, however, difficult to separate species of Samaropsis and perhaps Cardiocarpus zonulatus, Cardiocarpus late-alatus, of the Coal Flora, and Cardiocarpus crassus, may represent one species only, though different they may appear. The nucleus of this species is often found separated from its testa.
Habitat—Campbell's Ledge, Pittston. No. 963 of Lacoe's cabinet.
CARDIOCARPUS CIRCULARIS, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Fig. 10.Nucleus nearly round, minutely pointed, 6 m.m. in diameter; ring 2 m.m. broad, equal and continuous to the top where it is truncate above the point of the nucleus.
The seed resembles a large form of the preceding species; it is, however too, large and comes from a different locality at a different stage of the coal measures.
Habitat—Vermillion county, Indiana. No. 976 of Lacoe's cabinet.
CARDIOCARPUS DIPLOTESTA, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Fig. 13.Nucleus small, round; inner testa thick, acuminate by a micropylar prolongation passing up between the lips of the bordering testa which is very narrow at base, enlarged upward, connate and very slightly emarginate at apex.
This species is constituted like the following which it resembles, being essentially different by its larger size. The nucleus, placed lower than the center, is 5 m.m. in diameter, perfectly round; the inner testa narrowed at base, where it is a little more than 1 m.m. broad, is gradually enlarged upward to 3 m.m., at the point of connection where it is traversed as well as the borders, by a narrow micropyle ascending to the apex. The borders, representing an outer testa, are very narrow, scarcely 1 m.m. in the lower part of the seed, widened in the upper part to 3 m.m., and there connate in nearly their whole width. I have seen only one specimen of this species.
Habitat—Campbell's Ledge, Pittston. Collection of Lacoe, No. 272.
CARDIOCARPUS ZONULATUS, Lesqx., Plate CX, Figs. 14-17.The specimens figured are more complete than those which I had for the description of the species, l.c., and which all had the base destroyed The nucleus is oval or broadly cordiform, acute; the inner testa is distinct, more or less narrow, the outer testa or ring comparatively broad, larger in the upper part and toward the base, where it passes into a short pedicel. The nucleus is often marked in the middle by a vertical line which rarely reaches the apex of the seeds; more generally still by a central depression in the place of the nucelle.
Coal Flora, p. 568, Plate LXXXV, Figs. 44, 45.
Habitat—Same as the preceding, represented by numerous specimens in the collection of Mr. Lacoe, No. 272.
CARDIOCARPUS BICUSPIDATUS, Sternb., Plate CX, Figs. 18-22.From a very large number of well preserved specimens, the characters have been clearly seen. The nucleus is from 1 to nearly 1-1/2 c.m., transversely measured; from 7 to 15 m.m. vertically. It is often separated from its testa, and very smooth. The border of the testa is narrow, rarely broader than 1 m.m., except in the widening base or pedicel.
Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 573, Plate LXXXV, Figs. 42-43.
Habitat—The species has been found in abundance in the shale of the coal of Arkansas, near Fayetteville, by F. L. Harvey. No. 985 of Lacoe's collection.
CARDIOCARPUS ELLIPTICUS, Plate CX, Figs. 23-27.Fruit small; nucleus elliptical obtuse at both ends; border narrow, equal, slightly emarginate at one end.
Carpolithes ellipticus, St. "Fl. d. Vorw." 1, p. 40, Pl. VII, Fig. 1.
The nucleus is 6 to 8 m.m. long, 4-5 m.m. broad in the middle; the flat border, about 1 m.m., is a little narrower on one side. Figs. 23 and 24 represent the normal form with the surface of the nucleus smooth. Figs. 25 and 27 have the surface rugose, the nucleus somewhat broader, the border very narrow, even invisible toward the upper part. These last specimens may represent a different species.
Habitat—Cannelton, Penna., No. 968; the var. 994 is from Campbell's Ledge, of Pittston, both of the collection of Mr. Lacoe.
CARDIOCARPUS ANNULARIS, Plate CX, Figs. 28-30.Seeds a little larger than those of the preceding; nucleus oval, with an equal continuous border, sometimes prolonged downward into a short pedicel; surface smooth or rugose.
Carpolithes annularis, Sternb., "Fl. d., Vorw.," 1, p. 4, Pl. VII, Fig. 15.
These fruits are much like the last described, but larger, 1 c.m. long, 8 m.m. broad, including the border which is nearly 2 m.m. broad. The seed Fig. 29 appears different, but it was found mixed with a number of those of the normal form, some among them intermediate in shape. The lower prolongation of the border or pedicel is rarely preserved in the species of this genus. The figure of Sternberg, l.c., bears at its base an oval tubercle, about like the appendage of Fig. 29.
Habitat—Campbell's Ledge, Pittston, sub-conglomerate. No. 986 of Lacoe's collection.
CARDIOCARPUS PUSILLUS, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Figs. 31-33.Seeds very small, 2-3 m.m. in diameter, broadly oval or nearly round; nucleus globular and central, 1-1/2 to 2 m.m., bordered by a distinct narrow ring.
The central part or nucleus is convex, semi-globular in appearance, sometimes oval or more elongated; the narrow ring is continuous around the nucleus and parallel to the borders, equal. The seeds are coriaceous, shining.
Habitat—Not rare at Cannelton, Pennsylvania. Lacoe's collection, No. 967.
RHABDOCARPUS, Goepp. and Berg.Seeds small, oval, broadly costate, mamillate at the apex, surrounded by a narrow flat border.
Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 574.
RHABDOCARPUS LATE-COSTATUS, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Figs. 34, 35.
The fruit is only 7 m.m. long, 4 m.m. broad in the middle, marked upon its exposed surface with three comparatively broad costae, tipped with a small projecting mamilla, or an areole after abrasion.
Habitat—Campbell's Ledge, sub-conglomerate. No. 969 of Lacoe's collection.
RHABDOCARPUS INFLATUS, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Fig. 36.Fruit large, ovoid, inflated, and broadly round at one end, obtuse at the other, transversely wrinkled, as a small bladder would be by compression, obscurely regularly lineate lengthwise.
The fruit still bears its outer testa which appears to have been soft or somewhat fleshy, being transversely folded or undulate by compression. The shape is somewhat like that of Rhabdocarpus Mansfieldi; but the characters, especially the size and the obscure striae, are different.
Habitat—Cannelton. No. 991 of Mr. Lacoe's cabinet.
RHABDOCARPUS PACHYTESTA, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Figs. 37, 38.
The seed, 3-1/2 c.m. long, 2 c.m. broad, is in a ferruginous concretion and shows the structure as represented by the figure. The nucleus is only 13 m.m. long, 9 m.m. broad, loosely attached to the outer testa, which appears as split into two halves, the two borders being flat while the nucleus remains entire and prominent in the middle. The testa is 9-10 m.m. thick, above and below the nucleus, 6 m.m. on its sides. The nucleus, easily detached, much resembles the seeds of the following species and may represent it differing, however, not only by the testa, which though never found with the seeds of Rhabdocarpus mamillatus, might be supposed to have been destroyed by maceration, but essentially by the deeper more distant striae of the inner nut. Fig. 38 shows the fruit as seen obliquely.
The preservation of the outer testa in its whole thickness, as it is in this seed fossilized into pyrite, allows us to understand how far different are the characters of the fructifications of the Carboniferous, as seen in their original state, from what they appear to be when they have been softened by maceration and flattened by compression. That will also give an idea of the prodigious reduction in bulk of the soft cellular tissue by the process of carbonization or of transformation into coal. In this case, if the shrinking should be equal to that indicated by Stur for the carbonization of the bark of Calamites, that outer testa being transformed into coal would be represented by a pellicle of coal less than one fourth of a m.m. in thickness.
Habitat—Nodules of Mazon Creek, No. 989 of Lacoe's collection.
RHABDOCARPUS MAMILLATUS, Lesqx., Plate CX, Figs. 39-42.In the description of the species, Coal Flora, l.c., I have confounded two apparently different forms; one a Cardiocarpus described above, the other a true Rhabdocarpus.
Cardiocarpus? mamillatus, Lesqx., Coal flora, p. 571.
Habitat—Stark county, Illinois, No. 60 of Lacoe's collection.
Seeds of medium size broadly ovoid, more enlarged in the middle, obtuse or rounded at both ends, equally but obscurely lineate lengthwise, the striae at equal distance.
The seeds are sometimes covered with a thin pericarp, reduced to a thin pellicle of coal, as in Fig. 43, and as seen in that figure also, the striae, generally 1 m.m. distant, appear sometimes separated by thin close intermediate lines. The seeds vary from 10 to 13 m.m. long and from 7 to 9 broad. One of the specimens, Fig. 62, which I refer to this species with some doubt is alveolate at the apex; but it is so much like Fig. 45, which also appears to be truncate or alveolate at top, that a separation does not seem legitimate.
The species is comparable to Rhabdocarpus ovoideus, Goepp. and Berg. "De fruct.," p. 22, Pl. I, Fig. 17, and Goepp. "Perm. Fl.," p. 173, Pl. XXVII, Figs. 9, 10, from which it differs by the size of the seeds which in the American species are twice as large, and by the distinctly lineate surface.
Habitat—Cannelton, Pa., and Butler Dam C. vein of Pittston. No. 978 of Lacoe's collection.
Seeds oval oblong, bordered by a tumid margin somewhat distinct only in the upper part, emarginate at the apex, closely striate lengthwise with thin parallel lines; outer testa marked by thin flakes of coaly matter, striate on the surface like the nucleus.
The two specimens figured are the only ones seen of this species. They are 2-1/2 c.m. long, 10-12 m.m. broad in the middle. The slightly inflated border, 2 m.m. in diameter, is distinct, in Fig. 47, all around the seed, except at base. In Fig. 46, it is seen merely in the middle and there obscurely. As it is striate exactly in the same way as the inner part, it does not appear to constitute a separate ring as in species of Cardiocarpus.
Habitat—Cannelton, Pa. No. 233 of Mr. Lacoe's collection.
RHABDOCARPUS TENAX, Sp. nov., Plate CXI, Figs. 25, 26.Resembles the last species, differing by its irregular form, oblong or oval, truncate at base, obtuse or sub-emarginate at the apex, its size smaller, and the striae less distinct and more unequal, some of them, especially those in the middle of the seeds, being deeper and broader. The seeds 16 m.m. long, half as broad, are generally found in great numbers and placed as if depending from a thick radius generally destroyed. The only fragment preserved of it is represented Fig. 25. It is evidently part of a large rachis upon which the sessile seeds are attached about like those of Plate CIX, Fig. 1.
Habitat—I have large specimens of this species from Cannelton, communicated by Mr. I. F. Mansfield. It is also in Mr. Lacoe's cabinet, No. 701.
RHABDOCARPUS ABNORMALIS, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Figs. 48, 49.
Fruit large, of irregular shape, oblong, abruptly narrowed and obtuse at one end, somewhat curved in the lower part, obtusely pointed at the base, thinly, equally lineate lengthwise, and partly covered by a thin coaly layer 1 m.m. thick, remains of a pericarp.
The two seeds figured are upon the same piece of shale. They are 6 c. m. long, 2-1/2 broad in the upper part, resembling large teeth or bones, but evidently plant-remains or large fruits of unknown affinity.
Habitat—Cannelton, Pa., Mr. I. F. Mansfield.
RHABDOCARPUS APICULATUS, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Fig. 50.Seed oval, rounded at one end, apiculate at the other, obscurely striate in the upper part, smooth.
The seed, evidently a nucleus, somewhat resembles a Trigonocarpus. But it has no distinct costae and its base is round, polished without areolar scar. Its affinity is with Rhabdocarpus plicatus, Goepp., "Perm. Fl.," p. 170, Pl. XXVI, Fig. 1, of which the description applies to the American species. Comparing it with the figure, it differs by the striae converging and gradually becoming stronger toward the point and gradually effaced toward the base or the rounded part of the seed which is perfectly smooth. The figure in Goepp. l.c., shows the fruit exactly oval and abruptly apiculate, while in our specimen it is rapidly narrowed into a short acute point but not abruptly so.
Habitat—Stanton mine near Wilkes-Barre, No. 979, Lacoe' s collection.
TRIGONOCARPUS, Brgt.Seeds large, oblong, oval or ovate, parallelly costate, and very thinly striate on the pericarp between the ribs, truncate alveolate at the apex.
Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 584.
TRIGONOCARPUS SCHULTZIANUS, Goepp. & Berg., Plate CX, Figs. 63-65.
The specimens are numerous, some are covered with the pericarp others without it. It is not clear, however, if the thick sandstone layer which seems to cover the nucleus is not a part of the nucleus itself, the pericarp, generally transformed into coal upon fruits of this kind, being totally destroyed. The seeds in their whole or with what may be considered their pericarp, are 4 to 5 c.m. long, 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 c.m. broad, marked lengthwise by equal more or less acute or sharply prominent costae, 11 or 12 in number, 6 of which are generally exposed upon the upper face. The minute striae of the surface are rarely distinguishable. The species is related to Rhabdocarpus multistriatus, Presl., as figured Coal Flora, Plate LXXXV, Figs. 22, 23.
Habitat—Communicated in a large number of specimens preserved in sandstone by Mr. W. H. Adams, from Stark county, Illinois, with the following species, also from Tracy, Tenn., and Stanton mine, Wilkes-Barre, No. 960, Lacoe's collection.
TRIGONOCARPUS ADAMSII, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Figs. 51-57.Nucleus ovate, acute or acuminate, sometimes enlarged on the sides by vertical compression, broadly alveolate at base, distinctly 6 to 8 costate, the costa salient around the broad obtuse base or the alveole which is mamillate at the center, primary costa separated by indistinct flat or obtuse stria.
The seeds vary in size from 1 to 2 c.m. long and about 1-1/2 c.m. broad. The nucleus only is preserved except in Fig. 53, where the border shows the width and the thickness of the ribs. In their original state, or with the outer testa, these seeds would be, by cross-section, represented as bearing six narrow wings 6 m.m. broad with the same number of intermediate narrow ones as in Pl. 23, Fig. 1 of Brgt. "Gr. Foss.," a species which the author describes as Polypterospermum Renaultii.
Habitat—Stark county, Illinois, with the last; also Stanton mine, Wilkes-Barre, and Port Griffith, Penna. No. 957 of Lacoe.
Seeds very small, broadly ovate or globular, apiculate, rounded and alveolate, at the base, distinctly tricostate; surface smooth.
There are six specimens of this species, the largest 8 m.m. long, 5-1/2 broad, the smallest 2-1/2 m.m. long and about as broad. The alveole is seen Fig. 58.
Prof. Brongniart has figured and described in "Gr. Foss.," Pl. 22, Figs. 1-8, Trigonocarpus pusillus, a seed which merely differs from that of Illinois by its larger size and its ovate lanceolate-acuminate form, being 9 m.m. long and only 5 m. in. broad in its broadest part below the middle. The internal structure of the seed is represented by Brongniart in both the transverse and the longitudinal section.
Habitat—With the preceding, Stark county, Illinois. No. 971 of Lacoe's cabinet.
TRIGONOCARPUS GRANDIS, Sp. nov., Plate CXI, Figs. 1-3.Fruit large, oblong-oval, rounded at both ends, alveolate, distinctly tricostate ; costa broad, fat; surface smooth, pericarp thick, inflated, truncate or sub-emarginate at apex.
These fruits, somewhat flattened, are 7-1/2 c.m. long, 4-1/2 c.m. broad, distinctly marked by three broad prominent costae, and generally three shorter and narrower intermediate ones. The surface of one of the specimens, Fig. 3, is covered with a thick coating of brown coaly matter; representing the pericarp, truncate at the top, forming around the seed like an inflated ring, 5 m.m. in diameter.
The species bears a distinct relation to Trigonocarpus Dawesii, Ll. and Hutt., described below and abundantly represented in the same locality; but it is much larger, obscurely six costae, emarginate at one end, not pointed.
Habitat—Stark county, Illinois. No. 973 of Lacoe's collection.
TRIGONOCARPUS DAWESII, Ll. and Hutt., Plate CXI, Figs. 4-6.The specimens I refer to this species differ from it in some points and two of them at least, Figs. 4 and 6, may be small forms of the preceding. In these, the costae are broad, but not prominent; the cicatrices or alveoles are round, not as large as in Trigonocarpus Dawesii. These differences are not very marked; but for Fig. 5, at least, the reference to the species appears certain.
Lesqx., Coal Flora, p. 586, Plate LXXXV, Figs. 2, 3, 25.
Habitat—With the preceding. No. 664 of Lacoe.
TRIGONOCARPUS STARKIANUS, Sp. nov., Plate CXI, Figs. 7-13.Seeds variable in size and aspect, generally broadly ovate, but also nearly round or oblong and narrow, narrowed upward to a truncate triangular point, tri-costate above, the costae vanishing or becoming less distinct toward the base; rounded downward to a short generally broken pedicel, or sometimes flattened by compression.
These seeds vary from 1-1/2 to 3 c.m. long, and from 1 to 2 c.m. broad. There are 18 specimens of this species, all showing more or less distinctly the scar or remnant of a pedicel at their base. In Fig. 11, the pedicel, apparently preserved in its whole length, is mamillate at its lower end.
Habitat—Stark county, Illinois, abundant. No. 972 in Mr. Lacoe's collection.
TRIGONOCARPUS KANSASEANUS, Sp. Nov.Seeds rather small, ovate or oblong, marked by six more or less prominent costa, the surface being smooth between them, pointed and trigonal at the apex, with a small rather pointed alveolar base; pericarp smooth, very obscurely costate, transformed into a pellicle of hard coal about 1/2 m.m. thick.
The seeds, 11 to 18 m.m. long, 7 to 9 m.m. broad in the middle, have great analogy to the small forms of the preceding species, and still more to those of Trigonocarpus Adamsii, described above, being only smaller, especially narrower in the middle, the basilar areoles smaller, less distinct, and the apex a trigonal short open acumen.
Habitat—Osage, Kansas. No. 791 of Lacoe's cabinet.
Nucleus broadly ovate, abruptly acuminate or apiculate, tricostate, with thin intermediate stria, parallel to the costae; basilar alveole large, pointed in the middle.
The species resembles Rhabdocarpus multistriatus, Presl., Coal Flora, Plate LXXXV, Figs. 22, 23; but is a Trigonocarpus by its three strong cost, the intermediate striae being much thinner and not prominent. Both specimens represent a nucleus 2-1/2 to 3 c.m. long, 2 to 2-1/2 c.m. broad in the middle.
Habitat—These seeds were found among the specimens of coal plants of the National Museum, without indication of locality.
Seeds elliptical-oblong, narrowed upward to a tubulose neck, bordered by an enlarged or broad ring passing downward as a thick prominent costa.
These seeds appear costate, the borders, in Fig. 19, being like the enlarged or prominent ribs of Trigonocarpus, as it is more clearly seen Fig. 20, where on one side the costa passes down to the middle of the lower part of the nucleus while on the other it ascends along the neck like a border. Fig. 21 is covered with a coating of coaly matter, remains of the epicarp, and fragments of the ribs are seen in the upper part of the neck. Fig. 18 is hypothetically referred to the same species by its shape and an obscure ring formed by lines parallel to the borders converging under the neck and there joined in the form of a horse-shoe. These four specimens are fragmentary and seem to represent a species like Cardiocarpus longicollis, Figs. 24, 25 of the same plate.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate coal of Arkansas, F. L. Harvey; Tracy and Rockwood, Tenn., No. 975 of Lacoe's collection.
CARPOLITHES CERASIFORMIS, St., Plate CXI, Fig. 18.Seeds of medium size, round or oval, covered with an irregularly rugose pericarp.
Sternb., "Fl. d. Vorw.," II, p. 208, Pl. X, Fig. 9.
These seeds apparently covered with a fleshy pericarp, not transformable into hard coal, are not rare in the lower coal measures. They are always flattened, 1 to 1-1/2 c.m. in diameter, either quite round or broadly oval-obtuse with large wrinkles irregular in size and direction. The name given by Sternberg describes these fruits which are most like flattened dried cherries. They are most probably referable to some species of Cordaites and could therefore be described in the genus Cordaicarpus.
Habitat—At Cannelton and Arkansas. No. 999 of Lacoe's collection.
CARPOLITHES CONICUS, Sp. nov., Plate CXI, Fig. 17.A small seed, oblong, conical-pointed, rounded at base, partly flattened, convex on the surface; pericarp, a thin pellicle of hard coaly matter.
The small nutlet, a little more than 1 c.m. long, 6 to 7 m.m. broad in the middle, resembles the seeds of some Cucurbitaceae. The pericarp is not more than 1/4 m.m. thick.
Habitat—Shamokin, Pa. No. 959 of Lacoe.
CARPOLITHES BUTLERIANUS, Sp. nov., Plate CXI, Fig. 19.Seed flat, narrowly elliptical, obtuse at both ends, bearing fragments of a pericarp transformed into a thin pellicle of coal 1/2 m.m. thick and smooth like the surface of the nucleus.
This fine seed, 3-1/2 c.m. long, 11 m.m. broad in the middle, is obscurely bordered by a narrow concave band and convex in the middle. Its relation is unknown.
Habitat—Butler mine E vein, Pittston. No. 990 of Lacoe's collection.
CARPOLITHES GRANULARIS, St., Plate CXI, Figs. 20, 21.Seeds exactly round, 5-6 m.m. in diameter, convex and smooth on the surface, either surrounded by a thick half terete narrow border, or globose only, and without border when compressed under a different plane; surface polished.
Sternb., "Fl. d. Vorw.," 1, Pl. VII, Fig. 55.
Habitat—Not rare. Boston mine, Pittston; also Osage City, Kansas. No. 981 of Mr. Lacoe's collection.
CARPOLITHES PERPUSILLUS, Sp. nov., Plate CXI, Figs. 22-24.Seeds very small, round or oval, obtuse, convex, generally less than 2 m.m. in diameter, the largest 5 m.m. long, 2 broad, all perfectly smooth but not polished.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate, Campbell's Ledge, Pittston, Pa., not rare. No. 980 of Lacoe's collection.
CARPOLITHES MINIMUS, St., Plate CX, Figs. 66-68.Seed small, 3-1/2 to 4 m.m. in diameter, a little longer than broad, acute or acuminate at one end; surface either smooth or marked in the middle and longitudinally by a narrow costa which, on some of the specimens, appears to border the seeds as in species ofCardiocarpus.
Sternb. "Fl. d. Vorw.," Pl. VII, Fig. 3.
These small seeds sometimes appear also obscurely tricostate much like Trigonocarpus perpusillus, Figs. 59 and 60 of the same plate. As the locality is different and the costa is either totally absent or scarcely distinct the species has its place with the Carpolithes.
Habitat—There are a large number of specimens of this species from Stanton mine near Wilkes-Barre and from Cannelton, all in the cabinet of Mr. Lacoe under No. 954.
CARPOLITHES LATIOR, Sp. nov., Plate CX, Figs. 69, 70.
Habitat--Sub-conglomerate, Campbell's Ledge. No. 286 of Mr. Lacoe's collection.
CARPOLITHES TRANSSECTUS, Sp. nov., Plate CXI, Figs. 27-27b.Seeds small, cut on both sides nearly to the middle by a rectangular aperture at right angles to the borders, rounded to the slightly truncate base, triangular, obtusely pointed, somewhat larger upward, narrowly margined all around, attached to flexuous thin flat smooth branches.
As seen Fig. 27a and enlarged 27b, a seed separated from the stem, as they are mostly found upon the shale, these bodies, 6 m.m. long and as broad, have a pentagonal-like outlined form marked both sides by rectangular incisions penetrating to near the middle. The surface is concave, polished; the border narrow, convex, not often distinct; the point of attachment, Fig. 27, is not positively seen, the seeds appearing either fixed to narrow stems by the middle or by what appears to be the apex. They are strewn upon the stone, generally loose and very irregularly disposed, mixed with fragments of stems which are found upon all the specimens. These organs may be the fructifications of a fern. I do not know that anything of the kind has been observed before.
Habitat—Sub-conglomerate coal of Arkansas, F. L. Harvey. No. 279 of Lacoe's collection.