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LEPIDODENDRON (continued.)

LEPIDODENDRON VESTITUM LEPIDODENDRON DICHOTOMUM Lepidodendron cheilaleum Lepidodendron dissitum
Lepidodendron sigillarioides Lepidodendron dichotomum LEPIDODENDRON CUSPIDATUM Lepidodendron simplex
Lepidodendron Oweni Lepidodendron Sternbergii LEPIDODENDRON WORTHENII Lepidodendron dubium
Lepidophloios irregularis Lepidodendron elegans Lepidodendron Lesquereuxii LEPIDODENDRON CYCLOSTIGMA
Lepidophloios Lesquereuxii Lepidodendron gracile LEPIDODENDRON FORULATUM LEPIDODENDRON MIELICKII
Bergeria rhombica Lepidodendron conicum Lepidodendron caudatum Lepidophloios icthyolepis
Lepidodendron rhombicum Lepidodendron mekiston LEPIDODENDRON OBTUSUM LEPIDODENDRON OBSCURUM
LEPIDODENDRON QUADRANGULATUM Lepidodendron politum Lepidodendron venustum Lepidodendron diplotegioides
Aspidiaria Schlotheimiana LEPIDODENDRON DISTANS Sagenaria rimosa
Lepidodendron drepanapsis Lepidodendron oculatum Lepidodendron rimosum

§ 1. Inside scars at the top of the bolsters.


Boston Jour. S. N. H., v. VI, p. 428.
Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 874, Plate XVI, f. 3.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 26.

Lepidodendron sigillarioides, Lesqx., ibid., p. 875, Plate XV, f. 6.

Lepidodendron Oweni, Wood, Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil'a, p. 239, Pl. V, f.1 (1860.)

Bolsters rhomboidal, elongated, angular, narrowly margined; inside scars at the top, rhomboidal-acute; appendages and vascular points generally obsolete; cauda deeply wrinkled.

The upraised borders of the bolsters are often flattened by compression upon the inside scar and cover it in part. The bolsters are generally larger than in the specimen figured, the marginal inflation broader.*
*As most of the specimens represented in the Atlas are merely casts, the parts described as inflations or tumescences correspond to furrows or concavities of the bark in its natural state.

The scars seem to represent, on an enlarged scale, those of Lepidodendron scutatum, Plate LXIII, f. 6-6c.

Lepidodendron sigillarioides, Lesqx., l.c., is from a decorticated specimen which may be referable to this species or to Lepidodendron latifolium. The bolsters are exactly rhomboidal, eight millimeters long, six broad, the inside scars at the top, enlarged and acute on the sides, obtuse at the upper and lower border, have three indistinct vascular points and no trace of appendages nor of a cauda.

Habitat—Rare in the coal measures. Wilkesbarre and Archibald B & C vein. Nodules of Mazon Creek. The specimen from which Lepidodendron sigillarioides was described is from Summit Lehigh.

Geol. Rept. of Ohio, Paleont., II, p. 423, PI. LIll; 4.

Bolsters broadly rhomboidal, symmetrical; leaf scars quite near the upper borders, rhomboidal, enlarged laterally, topped by a small oval mamilla; middle vascular scars large and distinct, the lateral ones small and obsolete; cauda and appendages distinct.

The description and figure, l.c., were made from a young or half decorticated specimen which does not represent exactly the characters. The bolsters, by their outline and also by the position of the leaf scars, are much like those of Lepidodendron clypeatum. But they are always symmetrical, not inclined on one side, transversely rhomboidal, with all the angles acute, especially the lateral ones which are rather narrowed and acuminate. They measure nearly two centimeters horizontally and only twelve millimeters vertically. The leaf scars are separated from the upper borders by a narrow margin, two millimeters broad, as in Lepidodendron clypeatum. They have the same configuration as the bolsters, being only pro- portionally narrower, seven millimeters broad, with lateral angles acute, three to four millimeters vertically, the upper corner mammillate and more acute than the lower, which is obtuse or half round. The mamilla is transversely oval and larger than the medial vascular scar.

As seen from the specimen kindly communicated by Prof. Andrews this is evidently a distinct species.

Habitat—Base of the coal measures, near Rushville, Perry county, Ohio, (Prof. E. B. Andrews), with Archeopteris, Megalopteris and the other species published by the author.
LEPIDODENDRON CLYPEATUM, Lesqx., Plate LXIV, Figs. 16, 16a, 16b, (17, 18?)

Boston Jour. S. N. H., v. VI, p, 429.
Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 875, Plate XV, f. 5; Plate XVI, f. 7.
Geol. Rept. of Ill., II, p. 455.
Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 27.

Lepidophloios irregularis, Lesqx., Geol. Rept. of Ark., II, p. 311, Pl. IV, f. 3.

Lepidophloios Lesquereuxii, Andrews, Geol. Rept. of Ohio, Paleont., II, p. 423, Pl. LIII, f. 3.

Bolsters irregularly rhomboidal, nearly as broad as long, with sides obtuse and unequilateral; inside scars transversely rhomboidal-oval, acute on both sides; vascular scars and appendages distinct; cauda obsolete or none.

This form is common and very variable. Atlas, f. 16 represents a young fragment remarkable for the shape and position of the bolsters which give to it the appearance of a Lepidophloios. The bolsters are generally distinct and not imbricating as in this figure, with obtusely curved sides, always unequilateral, more expanded on one side than on the other, a character which I have remarked in all the numerous specimens which I have had for examination. The scars are generally flat, margined in the upper part, but sometimes the border is broad and continuous all around. In the decorticated state the bolsters are marked by a central small obtuse mamilla gradually effaced downward as in Atlas, f. 16b. The decorticated scars of Atlas, f. 17 and 18 are doubtfully referable to this species.

Though Schimper supposes that it may be a modified form of Lepidodendron obovatum, I consider it as specifically different. I have not seen any European specimen nor any description or figure of European authors representing its more marked characters, the short bolsters, nearly as broad as long, with unequilateral sides. Prof. Schimper also refers to this species Lepidophloios irregularis, Lesqx., l.c. This may be right; but in both this and Lepidophloios Lesquereuxii, Andrews, which is apparently the same species, the bolsters are narrower, scarcely or not at all unequilateral. The specimens of these two species are too fragmentary for conclusive observations. Lepidophloios irregularis, however, is positively a Lepidodendron as well as Lepidophloios Lesquereuxii.

Habitat—Seen in most of the localities where I have found Lepidodendron from the subconglomerate Coal of Helena, Ala., to the Cannelton Coal of Pennsylvania; also common in Illinois.

Geol. Rept. of Ill., II, p. 453, Pl. XLIV, f.7.

Bolsters vertically continuous, separated lengthwise by broad striate uninterrupted wrinkled ribs; inside scars large, transversely rhomboidal, the upper border emarginate, the lower very obtuse.

The outline of the bolsters is merely indicated by a deeper shade as seen on the figure. Though in spiral order, they are alternately disposed in vertical series and the rows separated by distinct striate ribs, like those which characterize costate species of Sigillaria. The regularity of these ribs observed upon a large specimen prevent the supposition that they are due merely to some disruption of the bark, like those of species of Ulodendron.

If it was not for this peculiar character, the fragment might be referable to the following species and considered as derived from an older part of the stems. Both these forms together with Lepidodendron Brittsii, represent the type of Lepidodendron Volkmannianum, St., diversely and beautifully represented in Stur., Culm. Fl., Pl. XVIII, f. 4; XXIII, f. 2-5.

Habitat—Chester group, subcarboniferous of Ill., Prof. A. H. Worthen.

Geol. Rept. of Ill., II, p. 453, Pl. XLIV, f. 6.
Schp. Paleont. veget., II, P. 28.

Bolsters broadly obovate, obtuse at the top and the contracted wrinkled base; inside scars transversely enlarged and narrow; vascular scars distinct, appendages none.

Except the narrower scars, the distinctly marked borders of the bolsters, narrowed to an obtuse base and without intermediate ribs, there is no difference in the characters of both this and the former species.

Habitat—Subcarboniferous of Ill., Chester group, from a different locality than the former, Prof. A. H. Worthen.
LEPIDODENDRON RHOMBICUM St., Plate LXII, Figs. 4, 4a; Plate LXIV, Fig. 18?

Bergeria rhombica, Presl., in St., Flor. d. Vorw., II, p. 184, Pl. L XVIII, f. 18.

Lepidodendron rhombicum, Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 37.

Bolsters subquadrate-rhomboidal, marginate, with equal sides and obtuse angles, marked at the top by a small oval mamilla.

This form and also Lepidodendron quadratum and Lepidodendron marginatum, St., are described by Schimper as species of uncertain relation established from decorticated young specimens. The small punctiform inside scars are described by the same author as perforated in the middle. I have not observed this character in any specimens which I think represent the species.

It is well to remark that if the determination of Lepidodendron is difficult and somewhat uncertain when based upon scars fully developed and distinctly preserved, it is still more hazardous when made from the decorticated. scars of young branches. Plate LXIV, f. 18, Atlas, is referred hypothetically either to this species or to Lepidodendron quadratum, St., or to Lepidodendron clypeatum.

Habitat—A number of specimens considered as representing Lepidodendron rhombicum, are all from Burnt Branch of Canney, Ky. Specimen, Atlas,  f. 18 is from Wilkesbarre. It is L. 37 in the Museum of Comp. Zool., Cambridge.

Palmacites quadrangulatus, Schloth., Nacht. Z. Petrel. p. 395, Pl. XVII, f. 18.

Aspidiaria Schlotheimiana, St., Fl. d.Vorw., II, p. 181, Pl. L XVIII, f. 10.

Lepidodendron drepanapsis,Wood, Proceed. Am. Nat. Soc. Phil., v. XII, 1860, p. 240 , VI, f. 2.

Bolsters large, rhomboidal-quadrangular, more obtuse at the upper end, a little more elongated and narrower at the lower; scars inflated, placed at the upper angle of the bolsters, transversely rhomboidal, with the lower border half round; vascular scars and appendages none; cauda transversely rugose.

The bolsters measure one and a half to two centimeters in diameter, and are vertically a little longer than transversely. The inside scar is thick or upraised, exactly rhomboidal as marked in the original figure of Schlotheim, or rounded on the lower side as in f. 10, St., l.c., and in Dr. Wood, f. 2. Both Schlotheim's and Sternberg's species are the same, for Sternberg remarks that he received his specimen from Schlotheim. The inside scars are either very close to the top of the bolsters or placed a little lower, their upper angle corresponding to that of the bolsters. The species is not mentioned by Schimper. It seems however very distinct especially by the inflated or upraised inside scars, probably in a decorticated state.

Habitat—A very rare form; known to me merely by the figures. The specimen represented by Dr. Wood is in the cabinet of the Academy of Nat. Sci. of Phila.; its locality is unknown.

§2. Species with inside scars placed in the upper third part of the bolsters.


1st type, bolsters rhomboidal.

Lepidodendron dichotomum, Brgt. Hist. d. veg. foss., II, Pl. XVI, f. 2. St., Fl. d. Vorw., I, Pl. II; Pl. LVI, f. 2; II, Pl. LXVIII, f. 1.
Gein., Verst., p. 34, Pl. III, f. 2, 3, 5.

Lepidodendron Sternbergii, Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 19.

2d type, bolsters obovate.

Lepidodendron dichotomum, Gein., Verst., P. 84, Pl. III, f. 6-12.

Lepidodendron obovatum, St., I, Pl. VI, f. 1; Pl. f. 1A, II, Pl. LXVIII, f. 6.
Ll. & Hutt., Foss. fl., I, Pt. XIX, bis.
Lesqx., Geol. of Pa., 1878, p. 874. Geol. Rept. of Ill., II, p. 455.

Lepidodendron elegans, Brgt., 1.c., II, Pl. XIV.
Ll. & Hutt., l.c., II, Pl. CXVIII; III, P1. CXCIX.

Lepidodendron gracile, Brgt., l.c., II, Pl. XV.

Lepidodendron rugosum, Presl., in St., l.c., II, Pl. LXVIII, f. 4.

Lepidodendron Mannebachense, St., ibid., Pl. LXVIII, f. 2.

1st Type. Bolsters rhomboidal; sides angular, inside scars transversely rhomboidal, the upper border rounded, the lower acute in the middle at the point of union of semi-lunar basilar lines; vascular points and appendages distinct in the large scars; cauda wrinkled; leaves lanceolate acuminate, half open, more or less distinctly nerved; strobile long; cylindrical bracts lanceolate.

2d Type. Bolsters obovate, not angular on the sides.

The young branches of this species have generally rhomboidal angular bolsters. In the branch figured by Brgt., l.c., Pl. XVI, f. 1, the same also represented by St., l.c., Pl. I, the upper branches have the bolsters square-rhomboidal while, towards the base of the stem, they become elongated and obovate. I must say that though I have seen long stems referable to the first type by the shape of the bolsters, I have not seen these passing to the second type even in considerably enlarged fragments. Thus, for example, a dichotomous stem of this species, twenty-four centimeters long, two centimeters broad, has the bolsters of its base still more enlarged transversely and more distinctly angular on the sides than at the top of the branchlets.

The description of the leaves and strobiles is taken from specimens figured by European authors. Lepidodendron obovatum is extremely common, easily recognizable by its impressions generally distinct, the bolsters narrowly but deeply margined, gradually enlarging upwards from an acute base and thus obovate, largest above the middle. The inside scars are small, one third of the diameter of the bolsters, and like the appendages and the cauda also, very distinctly marked. The bolsters are more or less enlarged and of various length according to their age. In flattened specimens the borders are generally narrow, marked by a mere line. The epidermis, rarely preserved, is distinctly striate, as seen Atlas, Plate LXIV, f. 3. It renders the shape of the bolsters somewhat obscure. When decorticated they are marked only by a central round mamilla.

Habitat—The whole extent of the coal fields; most common above the conglomerate.
LEPIDODENDRON MODULATUM, Lesqx., Plate LXIV, Figs. 13, 14.

Boston Jour. S. N. H., v. VI, p. 428.
Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 874, Plate XV, f. 1.
Geol. Rept. of Arks., II, p. 310, Pl.    f. 1, 1a.
Geol. Rept. of Ill., IV, p. 430.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 25.

Lepidodendron conicum? Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, l.c., p. 874, Pl. XV, f. 3.

Lepidodendron mekiston, Wood, Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sc., Phil., 1860, p. 239, Pl. V, f. 3.

Lepidodendron politum, Lesqx., Geol. Rept. of Ky. (D. D. Owen), III. p. 556, Pl. VII, f. 1.

Bolsters oval, largest in the middle, equally narrowed and acuminate at both ends; separated by a broad half cylindrical border or furrow, obliquely and finely wrinkled; inside scars lower than in the former species and broader, rhomboidal, the upper side curving both ways from a conical point; vascular scars, etc., as in the former species.

Though the differences which separate this species from the former are not very marked, they are, however, persistent, and therefore distinct. They may be recognized even upon very small branches with top bolsters four millimeters long, one and a half millimeters broad, the basilar ones of the same branches being already double this size, and all separated by a wrinkled half cylindrical border, as on the largest bolsters of the species which measure four and a half to five centimeters long, and nearly two centimeters broad inside of the borders. These, according to the size of the bolsters, vary from one to three millimeters in width. One of the trunks whose impressions have been left upon the sandstone of Little Beaver river, Penn'a., represents the species with the characters of the bolsters preserved upon its whole length. The inside scar is topped by a transversely rhomboidal inflation, as in the other species of this section.

Lepidodendron conicum, Lesqx, appears referable to this species. The specimen from which the description was made being flattened by compression, the borders of the bolsters are flat, and of course somewhat broader ; the inside scars are deformed, and placed a little higher. I have not seen any other fragment representing this form.

Habitat—Less common than the former, and appearing lower in the coal measures. Subconglomerate coal of Arkansas, Mazon reek, and shale of the coal of Morris, Ill. Carbondale, in Mr. Clarkson's collection, specimens of both the normal and flattened forms.

Boston Journ. S. N. H., v. VI, p. 429.
Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 875, Plate XV, f. 4.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 27.

Bolsters of small size, oval-hexagonal, angular on the sides, acute at both ends; borders narrowly deeply and sharply keeled; inside scars broadly rhomboidal, slightly enlarged on the sides; vascular scars and appendages distinct; cauda basilar.

This form is represented only by the specimen figured. The bolsters are one and a half centimeters long, eight millimeters broad, the inside scars transversely three millimeters, and two vertically. I consider as essential characters of this species the shape of the broad and short bolsters, surrounded by deep, sharply carinate borders, disposed in an elongated rhomboidal hexagonal outline, the four upper and lower sides being longer than the two middle ones which are parallel.

Habitat—Carbondale, Penn'a, low coal. There is a specimen of this species in the cabinet of Prof. Hildreth, at Marietta. It is without label.

Boston Tour. S. N. H., v. VI, p. 429.
Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 874, Plate XVI, f. 5.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 27.

Lepidodendron oculatum, Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, l.c., P. 874, Plate XVI, f. 4.

Lepidodendron cheilaleum, Wood, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., XIII, p. 846, Pl. IX, f. 4.

Bolsters rhomboidal-ovate; sharply acute at both ends, distant; interspaces broad, undulately striate or wrinkled lengthwise; inside scars rhomboidal; vascular scars and appendages distinct; cauda deep, broadly rugose.

The bolsters are of medium size, nearly rhomboidal-oval, a little narrower and more elongated in the lower part. They are very regularly placed in a same relative distance, equal to half their width, in measuring it in their spiral direction. Thus, in the three figures of this species, given from specimens representing different ages, the first Lepidodendron oculatum, l.c., has the bolsters three centimeters long, thirteen millimeters broad, and the space left between them seven millimeters. In Lepidodendron distans, the bolsters, two centimeters long, nine millimeters broad, are five millimeters apart, and in Lepidodendron Cheilaleum, representing a young specimen still covered with the epidermis, the bolsters one centimeter long, five millimeters broad, are still three to four millimeters distant. Comparison of this kind made from specimens obtained from distant localities and referable to divers parts of trees, in various stages of growth, sufficiently contradict the opinion of those who wish to reduce to very few types the species of the coal flora, considering the differences of character as resulting from mere casual causes.

Habitat--Carbondale. Seen in Mr. Clarkson's cabinet, in very large specimens. The specimen described by Dr. Wood is in the museum of the Acad. Nat. Soc. of Phil.

Bolsters closely contiguous, imbricating on one side, obovate, acuminate at both ends, more elongated in the lower side; inside scars triangular, cuspidate by a short narrow ridge in-the middle of the lower side, corners obtuse; vascular points distinct, the middle one twice as large; appendages distinct, small; decorticated scars oval, with a central oval mamilla and a short narrow ridge at the top.

The figure represents only three bolsters of two large specimens, one with, the other without the cortex. The shape of these scars is peculiar. I have not seen its like until now, neither upon American specimens, nor figured by authors. I do not even see to which species it might be compared.

Habitat—The two specimens are in the cabinet of Mr. R. D. Lacoe, Nos. 717 and 718, from Plymouth E vein, Pittston, Penn'a.

Geol. Rept. of Ill., II, p. 452, Pl. XLIV, f. 4, 5.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 28.

Bolsters small, oblanceolate, spindle shaped, narrowed, decurrent and continuous to the base; inside scars vertically narrow, transversely as broad as the bolsters, half round at the upper border and cuspidate in the middle when corticated, nearly truncate at the base; vascular points in the upper part of the scars; appendages and cauda none.

The fragments figured represent small stems with bolsters comparatively long and narrow, two centimeters long, four to five millimeters broad. The specimen, Atlas, f. 8 has the surface covered with the epidermis, the bolsters transversely rugose, gradually narrowed to an acuminate base, with the inside scars mucronate. In older branches the bolsters are less rugose, with the upper borders of the scars half round. All the specimens I have seen of this species have the same characters, and represent the same size, either upon stems or branches. Distantly related to Lepidodendron Brittsii.

Habitat—Murphysborough, Jackson county, Ill.

Bolsters small, very inflated, obovate, smooth; inside scars rhomboidal, transversely enlarged, base and top obtuse; vascular scars in the lower part; no trace of appendages nor of cauda.

A mere fragment of a young branch or stem, with bolsters prominent and extremely distinct. The species, like the former, is of the type of Lepidodendron Volkmannianum, St. But the inside scars are not as broad, not near the top of the bolsters, and more enlarged vertically.

Habitat—Mazon Creek in nodules.

*Elem. of Geol., 2d Ed., inedit.

Lepidodendron Lesquereuxii, Andrews, Elem. of Geol., p. 117, f. 307.

Bolsters large, broadly rhomboidal, with equilateral sides of equal length; surface longitudinally striate; borders upraised; leaf scars nearly in the middle, triangular, transversely enlarged, the upper sides parallel to the borders of the bolsters, the base truncate; cauda thick, distinct; vascular scars obscured by the stria of the thin, cortex.

A peculiar species, distantly comparable to Lepidodendron Veltheimianum. The bolsters are exactly rhomboidal or square, when seen in their spiral direction; the borders obtusely keeled, each side measuring two centimeters. The triangular leaf scar bear at the top a small rhomboidal mamilla; the appendages and cauda are very distinctly marked, as in Lepidodendron Veltheimanium; the surface is covered by a thin layer of smooth shining coal, wrinkled lengthwise.

Habitat—Base of the coal measure, Perry county, Ohio.

§ 3. Inside Scars in or about the middle of the bolsters.


Geol. Rept. of Ill., IV, p. 431, Pl. IV, f. 5-8.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., III, p. 534.

Bolsters distant, spindle-shaped, narrowed and acuminate at both ends, transversely rugose, separated by flat narrow parallel ribs and intervals irregularly striate lengthwise; inside scars central, rhomboidal, obtuse at the top, truncate or obtusely pointed at the lower part; vascular scars distinct; appendages and cauda none; cortex thick, narrowly and regularly striate; decorticated scars small, regularly rhomboidal, decurring into a short cauda.

The bolsters, one and a half centimeters long, five to seven millimeters broad, are separated as in Sigillaria, by narrow vertical equidistant ribs. The thick epidermis is narrowly striate, the central part of the bolsters only being marked by a small smooth round space. The subcortical leaf scars, Atlas, f. 10 and 10a, are distinct, rhomboidal, or half round, placed in the middle of a smooth round convex surface, their obconical base is traversed by a short and narrow line or cauda.

The species is closely allied to Ulodendron ellipticum, St., represented Atlas, Plate LXV, f. 2, 3. The ribs are, however, more regular in size and length, the bolsters longer, and the decorticated scars of a different character.

Habitat—St. John's coal, Ill.

Geol. Rept. of Ark., II, p. 311, Pl. IV, f. 2;
Geol. Rept. of Ill., II, p 452; Pl. XLIX, f. 2.
Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 28, Pl. LX, f. 7.

Bolsters oval-rhomboidal and acuminate at both ends, with broad flat smooth borders; inside scars transversely spindle-shaped or narrowly rhomboidal, with both side acute; vascular scars large; cauda marked by a few transversal wrinkles; decorticated bolsters rhomboidal, with broad flat margins crossed by a vertical medial line.

The bolsters, one and one half centimeters in length, are only five millimeters broad in the middle.

Schimper compares this species to Lepidodendron confluens, St., referable by the same authority to Lepidodendron aculeatum, St. As both figures are placed aside, f. 1 and 2 of Atlas, Plate LXIV, the degree of relation is easily observed. The decorticated bolsters of Lepidodendron aculeatum are marked, as far as I know them, by a round central mamilla.

Habitat— Subconglomerate coal of Arks. Colchester, Ill., first coal above the conglomerate. Not found elsewhere.

Geol. Rept. of Ill., IV, p. 431, Pl. XXIV, f. 1, 2.
Schp., Paleonl. veget., III, p. 535.

Lepidodendron dicrocheilum, Wood, Proc. Acad. of Phil., 1860, p. 239, Pl. VI, f. 1.
Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., XIII, p. 346, Pl. IX, f. 6.

Lepidodendron caudatum, var., Roehl., Foss. fl., p. 130, Pl. VI, f. 7.

Bolsters oval, acuminate at both ends, separated by a flat, smooth or wrinkled border; inside scars large, transversely rhomboidal-ovate; upper and lower borders obtuse, the upper one more convex; vascular scars large; appendages and cauda none; decorticated bolsters marked lengthwise by a deep medial line, half the length of the bolsters.

The fragment from which the species is described seems to represent part of a large stem, though the bolsters are of small size, one and a half centimeters long and five millimeters broad.

This species resembles the former. The bolsters are more sharply acuminate, and when decorticated they are without border, preserve exactly the same form and size as those covered with the cortex, and the leaf scars are placed a little higher. The epidermis as seen upon a fragment of another specimen is a thin pellicle of coaly matter with smooth surface, upon which the outlines of the bolsters are merely obscurely traced.

Lepidodendron dicrocheilum, Wood, l.c., is apparently a mere form of this species. In f. 1, l.c., the intervals between the bolsters are evidently rugose, and the leaf scars are placed in the middle. In f. 6 however the scars are above the middle and the intervals smooth.

Habitat—St. Johns coal bank, Ill. Broad Top, Cook's coal, Dr. H. C. Wood.

Boston Jour. S. N. H., v. VI, p. 429.
Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 875, Plate XVI, f. 6.
Schp., Paleont. Veget., II, p. 26.

Lepidodendron venustum, Wood, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., XIII, p. 347, Pl. IX, f. 1.

Bolsters rhomboidal, acute at the top, obtuse at the lower end, margined; inside scars central, small, transversely rhomboidal, the upper border obtuse, the lower curved on the sides, joined in the middle into a short decurring acumen; appendages distinct, small; cauda strong, transversely rugose.

Species comparable to Lepidodendron modulatum. The bolsters are much shorter and comparatively broader, a little more than two centimeters long, one and a half broad; the inside of the borders are narrower and wrinkled or rather striate in right angle. The leaf scars are exactly in the middle, of the same form as in Lepidodendron modulatum, topped first by a semi-lunar line and above it by a conical impression. The figure of Dr. Wood, l.c., represents a younger fragment in a better state of preservation. The characters are the same. Schimper, l.c., supposes that Lepidodendron giganteum, Lesqx., may represent old scars of this species.

Habitat—Carbondale, Mr. Clarkson's collection. Dr. Wood's specimen is in the collection of the Acad. of Philadelphia, locality unknown.

St., Flor. d. Vorw., p. 21, Pl. X, f. 1.
Roehl, Foss. p. 132, Pl. VIII, f. 1; Pl. X, f. 2.
Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 874.
Schp., Pateont. Veget. II, p. 33, Pl. LX, f. 8-8a.

Sagenaria rimosa, Presl., in St., fl. d. Vorw., II, p, 180, Pl. LVIII, f. 15.
Gein., Verst., p. 35, Pl. III, f. 13-15.

Lepidodendron rimosum and dissitum, Sauv.,Veg. foss., Belg., Pl. LX, f. 6; Pl. LXII, f. 1 (fide Schp.).

Lepidodendron simplex, Lesqx., Geol. Rept. of Ill., II, p. 454, Pl. XLV, f. 5.

Lepidodendron dubium, Wood, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc., XIII, p. 344, Pl. VIII, f. 4.

Bolsters fusiform or narrowly rhomboidal, elongated and acuminate at both ends, convex, carinate, rarely contiguous, more or less distant; intervals wrinkled lengthwise; inside scars central, small, rhomboidal.

The species is common and variable. The bolsters are very narrow, comparatively to their length, two to three centimeters long, three to five millimeters broad in the middle; the inside scars are proportionally small with the vascular dots generally indistinct, forming in the middle an elongated triangle by lines passing transversely across the tree basilar scars, and ascending to a small point above them, as marked, Atlas,  f. 11. Geinitz in enlarged f. 13, l.c., marks three basilar round vascular scars and one above them.

The bolsters are generally somewhat distant, with intervals wrinkled lengthwise. But they are also, it seems, sometimes contiguous, merely separated by a narrow inflated border, as figured in Gein., l.c., f. 15. It is from a specimen of this character with the borders of the bolsters marked by a mere thin line, that I described Lepidodendron simplex, which, if Geinitz is correct, has to be considered as a variety of this species. For indeed the leaves of which the German author has figured a fragment, are narrow, two millimeters, exactly of the same width and character as those of Lepidodendron simplex, and the cone which Geinitz refers to this species under the name of Lepidostrobus variabilis is also remarkably like Lepidodendron princeps, Lesqx., l.c., f. 6. It is however certain that even if Lepidodendron simplex is a mere variety of Lepidodendron rimosum, the reference of the cone to this species is more than doubtful, as these strobiles were not found at the same locality and have nothing in their characters indicating a relation either to this Lepidodendron or to Lepidostrobus variabilis, Ll. and Hutt.  Schimper does not quote that f. 15 of Geinitz as referable to Lepidodendron rimosum, considering it perhaps as a different species. But Roehl, Pl. X, f. 2, l.c., represents the same form under this specific name.

In the decorticated state, the bolsters, generally tipped by a short linear ridge, are often much elongated and continuous, so that the surface of the specimens resembles that of large Calamites.

Habitat—Lower coal measures above the Millstone grit. Colchester, Morris, Ill.; Hausville coal, Ky., and Pottsville, Pa., as Lepidodendron simplex. Specimens in the collection of Mr. R. D. Lacoe represent Lepidodendron rimosum with distant scars. The frequency of the form Lepidodendron simplex which is very rare in Europe and the scarcity here of the representatives of the true Lepidodendron rimosum, seems to point to a specific difference between them.

Fl. d. Vorw., I, p. 10, Pl. VIII, f. 2 B.
Goepp., Syst., p. 465, Pl. XLII, f. 4, 5, 6.

Sagenaria crenata, Brgt., Prod., p. 86. St., l.c., II, p. 178, Pl. LXVIII, f. 5.

Bolsters rhomboidal-fusiform, narrowed and acute at both ends. Inside scars nearly in the middle, large, rhomboidal, obtuse at the top, acute at the sides and at the base; appendages more or less distinct; cauda enlarged downward, broadly rugose.

Schimper considers this species as a form of Lepidodendron aculeatum. The inside scars are larger nearly as broad as the bolsters, about central. It has the characters of Lepidodendron Veltheimianum, St., as figured in Stur, Culm. flora, Pl. XIX, f. 5, at least from the American specimens which I consider as representing it and which are remarkably similar to the figures of the German author.

Habitat—Subconglomerate coal of Port Byron, Ill., Mr. I. H. Southwell.

Bolsters broadly rhomboidal, acute at both ends, rounded on the sides; inside scars central, mamillate, nearly round; cortex indistinctly marked by the outlines of the leaf scars.

The great size of the fragments which represent this species shows them to be derived from large trees. But though well preserved, even with the epidermis, the bolsters and scars do not have any feature different from what I have figured, nor any character indicating a reference to another species of this genus. The outlines of the bolsters resemble those of some varieties of Lepidodendron clypeatum, but the inside scars are of a different character. The bolsters are all of the same size, twelve millimeters in vertical direction and one centimeter broad.

Habitat—Clinton coal. communicated in large specimens by Dr. J. H. Britts.

Species of uncertain reference.


Goepp., Syst., p. 465, Pl. XLIV, f. 1, 2.
Lesqx., Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, p. 875.
Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 85.

Bolsters (decorticated) rhomboidal, narrower and blunt or nearly acute at both ends, obtuse on the sides, surrounded by an elevated smooth border, inside scars central, oval, large, their places after abrasion being marked by a small round depression.

Goeppert's figure represents, together with the decorticated. bolsters as described above, the counterpart or corticated surface, rendered. obscure by the epidermis transformed into a thin layer of coaly matter. The reference of this species is uncertain. A number of specimens of Lepidodendron have in the decorticated. state a similar appearance and. therefore remain undetermined. The likeness of the bolsters of the specimen American, especially the prominent smooth border and the oral central scar, authorize its reference to Goeppert' s species without giving any more indications about its true relation.

Habitat—Summit Lehigh, Penn'a.

Geol. Surv. of Canada, Foss. pl., (1871), p. 83, Pl. VIII, f. 82-84.

Bolsters contiguous, elliptical; leaf scars central; leaves thick at base, circular, slightly ascending and curving downward, short; strobiles small, lateral branches slender, straight and very uniform in thickness; areoles prominent in decorticated stems.

The description is copied from the author. Neither the leaves nor the strobiles are figured; at least the fragments of leaves attached to the side of f. 83 are quite obscure and their character is unascertainable. The strobile, f. 84, is like an inflated branchlet covered with leaf scars. The bolsters are very small, three millimeters long and half as broad, contiguous and in parallel rows as in some species of Sigillaria.

Habitat—New York State; specimen in Prof. Hall's collection from the Catskill group.

Geol. Rept. of New York State, p. 275, f. 127.

Decorticated stein covered with oval, acuminate, scale-like areoles, more acute and smaller in proportion to the size of the stem than inLepidodendron Gaspianum.

Species represented by a young branch with the bolsters only distinct. Schimper, Paleont. veget., marks it as probably referable to Lepidodendron Sternbergii.

Habitat—Chemung group, New York State. A small specimen figured Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, II, p. 829, f. 677, appears referable to this species, according to the remarks of Prof. Rogers. It is from the Chemung of Penn'a.

Lepidophloios icthyolepis, Wood. Proced. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil., (1860) p. 240, Pl. V, f. 5.

Stem large; cortex thin; bolsters approximate, raised, furnished with an appendix on each side and one in the middle; vascular scars not preserved.

This description is that of the author. From the figure, the specimen seems to represent decorticated impressions of broadly rhomboidal bolsters, obtuse at the upper part; confluent at the base, with the inside scar marked by an inflation at the top, and a smooth ridge descending from it like a cauda. The specimen is undeterminable.

Habitat—Roof of Tunnel vein, Dauphin co., Pa. Specimen in the Cabinet of the Academy.

Geol. Rept. of Ill., II, p. 453, Pl. XLIV, f. 1-3.

Lepidodendron diplotegioides, (decorticated), Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 28.

Bolsters obscurely marked, flat, rhomboidal-oval, narrowed and acute to both ends, distant; intervals irregularly striate, deeply furrowed in the old parts of the stems; inside scars central round or oval.

As Schimper states it, these decorticated fragments may represent Lepidodendron diplotegioides but may be referable also to other species, as for example to Lepidodendron Charpentieri, Goepp., Syst., p. 433, Pl. XLII, f. 1, which Schimper identifies with Lepidodendron aculeatum.

Habitat—Subconglomerate measures.

Geol. Rept. of Ill., II, p. 454, Pl. XLVI, f. 1.
Schp., Paleont. veget., II, p. 28.

Bolsters large, oblong-rhomboidal or oval, narrowed, decurring, flexuous and continuous at both ends, ribbed lengthwise; inside scars about central, obscurely marked, oval.

The large bolsters are covered with flattened ribs or large and flexuous stria, resembling the impressions of a coating of rootlets, like those of Caulopteris macrodiscus or Caulopteris Mansfieldi, Atl., Pl. LX, f. 3. Schimper supposes that it may represent a peculiar state of Lepidodendron confluens, St., which is, a decorticated form of Lepidodendron aculeatum. I have not seen any decorticated Lepidodendron with the surface marked by striae or longitudinal flexuous ribs and still believe that the specimen described above may represent merely a piece of bark of a Caulopteris.

Habitat--Duquoin, Ills.